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This book represents the culmination of many years of teaching experience in the senior design course at West Virginia University (WVU) and University of Nevada, Reno. Although the program at WVU has evolved over the last thirty years and is still evolving, it is fair to say that the current program has gelled over the last fifteen years as a concerted effort by the authors to integrate "design" throughout the undergraduate curriculum in chemical engineering.
We view design as the focal point of chemical engineering practice. Far more than the development of a set of specifications for a new chemical plant, design is the creative activity through which engineers continuously improve the operations of facilities to create products that enhance the quality of life. Whether developing the grass-roots plant, proposing and guiding process modifications, or troubleshooting and implementing operational strategies for existing equipment, engineering design requires a broad spectrum of knowledge and intellectual skills to be able to analyze the big picture and the minute details and, most important, to know when to concentrate on each.
Our vehicle for helping students develop and hone their design skills is process design rather than plant design, covering synthesis of the entire chemical process through topics relating to the preliminary sizing of equipment, flowsheet optimization, economic evaluation of projects, and the operation of chemical processes. The purpose of this text is to assist chemical engineering students in making the transition from solving well-posed problems in a specific subject to integrating all the knowledge that they have gained in their undergraduate education and applying this information to solving open-ended process problems. Many of the "nuts and bolts" issues regarding plant design (for example, what schedule pipe to use for a given stream or what corrosion allowance to use for a vessel in a certain service) are not covered. Although such issues are clearly important to the practicing engineer, several excellent handbooks and textbooks are available to address such problems, and these are cited in the text where they apply.
In the second edition, we have rearranged material from the first edition and have added several new chapters. The new material includes the following:
As a result of our integrated approach to design, and in response to feedback on the first edition, we have rearranged and modularized this book into six sections:
This reorganization of material provides a more logical ordering of topics. In Section 1, the student is introduced first to the principal diagrams that are used to describe a chemical process. Next, the evolution and generation of different process configurations are covered. Finally, the analysis of existing processes is covered. In Section 2, the information needed to assess the economic feasibility of a process is covered. This includes the estimation of fixed capital investment and manufacturing costs, the concepts of the time value of money and financial calculations, and finally the combination of these costs into profitability measures for the process. Section 3 covers the synthesis of a chemical process. The minimum information required to simulate a process is given, as are the basics of using a process simulator. The choice of the appropriate thermodynamic model to use in a simulation is covered and the choice of separation operations is covered. In addition, process optimization and heat integration techniques are covered in this section. In Section 4, the analysis of the performance of existing processes and equipment is covered. The material in Section 4 is substantially different from that found in most textbooks. We consider equipment that is already built and operating and analyze how the operation can be changed, how an operating problem may be solved, and how to analyze what has occurred in the process to cause an observed change. In Section 5, the impact of chemical engineering design on society is covered. The role of the professional engineer in society is addressed. Separate chapters addressing ethics and professionalism, health, safety, and the environment, green engineering, and chemical product design are included. Finally, in Section 6, the interpersonal skills required by the engineer to function as part of a team and to communicate both orally and written are covered. An entire chapter is devoted to addressing some of the common mistakes that students make in written reports.
Finally, two appendices are included. Appendix A gives a series of cost charts for equipment. This information is embedded in the CAPCOST program for evaluating fixed capital investments and process economics. Appendix B gives the preliminary design information for four chemical processes: dimethyl ether, acrylic acid, acetone, and heptenes production. This information is used in many of the end-of-chapter problems in the book. These processes can also be used as the starting point for more detailed analyses, for example, optimization studies. Other projects are included on the CD accompanying this book.There is also a link to another web site that contains environmentally related design projects.
For a one-semester design course, we recommend including the following core:
For programs in which engineering economics is not a prerequisite to the design course, Section 2 (Chapters 5Ð8) should also be included. If students have previously covered engineering economics, Chapters 12 and 13 covering optimization and pinch technology could be substituted.
For the second term of a two-term sequence, we recommend Chapters 14 through 18 (and Chapters 12 and 13 if not included in the first design course) plus design projects. If time permits, we also recommend Chapter 19 (Regulating Process Conditions) and Chapter 20 (Process Troubleshooting) as these tend to solidify as well as extend the concepts of Chapters 14 through 18, that is, what an entry-level process engineer will encounter in the first few years of employment at a chemical process facility. For an environmental emphasis, Chapter 23 could be substituted for Chapters 19 and 20; however, it is recommended that supplementary material be included.
We have found that the most effective way both to enhance and to examine student progress is through oral presentations in addition to the submission of written reports. During these oral presentations, individual students or a student group defend their results to a faculty panel, much like a graduate student defends a thesis or dissertation.
As design is at its essence a creative, dynamic, challenging, and iterative activity, we welcome feedback on and encourage experimentation with this design textbook. We hope that students and faulty will find the excitement in teaching and learning engineering design that has sustained us over the years.
An integrative approach to continuous improvement in chemical engineering.
Process design skills are the focal point of sound chemical engineering. In this second edition of Analysis, Synthesis, and Design of Chemical Processes, the authors present design as a creative process that integrates the big picture and the small details-and relies on knowing which to stress, and why. These techniques are applied to every aspect of the discipline, from the conceptual design of a plant to improving an existing process, and more.
Analysis, Synthesis, and Design of Chemical Processes moves chemical engineering students beyond neatly delineated classroom exercises and into the world of solving the open-ended process problems they will see in practice. The authors accomplish this by emphasizing design synthesis of the entire processfrom equipment sizing to optimization, from finances to operation. Coverage includes:
Analysis, Synthesis, and Design of Chemical Processes represents over 30 years of chemical engineering teaching at West Virginia University. Included are suggested curricula for both single-semester and year-long design courses, case studies and design projects with practical applications, and appendices with current equipment cost data and preliminary design information for four chemical processes.About the CD-ROM
The CD-ROM contains a heavily revised version of CAPCOST, now in the form of a spreadsheet template, which is used for evaluating fixed capital investments and full process economics. The HENSAD application allows the user to construct temperature interval, cascade, and temperature-enthalpy diagrams; estimate the optimal approach temperature; and design heat exchanger networks. Also included are a virtual plant tour of a simple chemical process and additional student design projects.