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Animals in the Third Reich: Pets, Scapegoats, and the Holocaust [Hardcover]

Boria Sax , Klaus P. Fischer
3.0 out of 5 stars  See all reviews (2 customer reviews)

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Book Description

June 1 2002
This book is a must for all collections in German history and animal rights. It is a deep and profound reflection on the complex and perplexing ways that animals can shape human culture and politics.->

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"throws new light on the Nazis and on the Holocaust...also forces us to confront our own uncertainties an ambivalences." -This text refers to an out of print or unavailable edition of this title. (Andrew N. Rowan, The Humane Society)

"throws new light on the Nazis and on the Holocaust...also forces us to confront our own uncertainties an ambivalences."

"throws new light on the Nazis and on the Holocaust...also forces us to confront our own uncertainties an ambivalences." -This text refers to an out of print or unavailable edition of this title. (,)

About the Author

Boria Sax received his doctorate in Intellectual History from the State University of New York, Buffalo. He has been a consultant to many human-rights organizations including Amnesty International, Helsinki Watch, and the International League. He is founder of the nonprofit organization Nature in Legend and Story (NILAS, Inc.), which is dedicated "to promoting understanding of traditional bonds between human beings and the natural world." He is the author of several books and many articles, and lives in Westchester County, New York.

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1 of 1 people found the following review helpful
1.0 out of 5 stars A Laudable Project, Poorly Executed Feb. 7 2002
By A Customer
Format:Hardcover
Unfortunately, this beautifully written, morally reflective book was inadequately researched. Many of the author's anecdotes were simply culled from secondary sources (some of questionable reliability), and the book even contains lengthy sections of entirely unfootnoted assertions. Sax seems unaware of major recent work on Nazi Germany of direct relevance to the issues he addresses - Christopher Browning's "Ordinary Men," Ian Kershaw's "Hitler Myth", Paul Weindling's "Health, Race and German Politics" and Kurt Schleunes', "A Twisted Road to Auschwitz" are all missing from his bibliography. As a result, his book unfortunately adds little to contemporary scholarly understanding of the Nazi regime, despite the novelty and importance of his initial questions.
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5.0 out of 5 stars Valuable insight into the Nazi world view June 27 2001
By plhgg
Format:Hardcover
In this useful and interesting book, Sax discusses the treatment of animals in the Third Reich, but the focus is broader than that; he also explores the way that metaphors from the animal kingdom became an important way of expressing the Nazi world view. In the twisted ideology of the Third Reich, there was no important differentiation between "human" and "animal" life. Instead, the Nazis tended to look on the world as a continuum. The highest position on the continuum belonged to healthy humans the "Aryan race." Animals could be found lower down on that continuum, while lower still were the humans who were considered inferior because of their racial identity or mental handicaps. As Sax put it in the introductory material, "In their nihilistic perspective the important distinction was not between "humans" and "aniimals" .... It was between victor and vanquished, between master and slave. The underlying paradigm was ... that of predator and prey." This attitude reflected the viewpoint in National Socialism that depicted nature as "a harsh and implacable power," demanding obedience.
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Amazon.com: 3.2 out of 5 stars  4 reviews
15 of 19 people found the following review helpful
5.0 out of 5 stars Valuable insight into the Nazi world view June 27 2001
By plhgg - Published on Amazon.com
Format:Hardcover
In this useful and interesting book, Sax discusses the treatment of animals in the Third Reich, but the focus is broader than that; he also explores the way that metaphors from the animal kingdom became an important way of expressing the Nazi world view. In the twisted ideology of the Third Reich, there was no important differentiation between "human" and "animal" life. Instead, the Nazis tended to look on the world as a continuum. The highest position on the continuum belonged to healthy humans the "Aryan race." Animals could be found lower down on that continuum, while lower still were the humans who were considered inferior because of their racial identity or mental handicaps. As Sax put it in the introductory material, "In their nihilistic perspective the important distinction was not between "humans" and "aniimals" .... It was between victor and vanquished, between master and slave. The underlying paradigm was ... that of predator and prey." This attitude reflected the viewpoint in National Socialism that depicted nature as "a harsh and implacable power," demanding obedience.
1 of 1 people found the following review helpful
2.0 out of 5 stars A Very Deceptive Title May 29 2014
By Arnold E. Bjorn - Published on Amazon.com
For some it is still a shock to learn, for many nowadays an accepted truism, that even as Nazi Germany was mean to its minorities, it was also nice to animals. Perhaps influenced by Adolf Hitler himself -- An avowed vegetarian and animal-lover -- the Nazis took steps for the protection of animals and environment which, in the context of the 1930s, were indeed quite revolutionary. Numerous writers have acknowledged this in the past, but to this reviewer's best knowledge, no actual scholarly monograph on the subject has as yet been produced.

One might easily believe that this book would be the first. If so, one is bound to be grievously disappointed upon perusing it. For Boria Sax has far different intentions with this slim little tome than its cover would lead us to believe: What he is really writing about is his idea of what made the Nazis tick. Rather than history, which calmly presents the facts, this is "psycho-history" in the vein of Victor's "Hitler: The Pathology of Evil" or Waite's "The Psychopathic God Adolf Hitler" (both about as awful as their hysterical titles would suggest, and both quoted approvingly by Sax). And as is par the course for this genre, elaborate and far-fetched speculation is substituted for those same facts.

Sax uses a number of dubious claims to argue that Nazism was less a political movement than a death-obsessed religious cult inspired by Judaism. The genocidal wars of the Hebrews recounted in the Old Testament (foremost the Book of Joshua) are interpreted as human sacrifice on a vast scale (p. 151), the prototype of the Nazi atrocities. A parallel is also drawn to the scapegoat sacrificed on the Jewish Day of Atonement, which the ancient Jews are said to have cursed with all their sins before sacrificing it to the demon Azazel (p. 152). Similarly, Sax writes, the Nazis sacrificed the Jews themselves to an unnamed "German God" who "bore far more resemblance to Yahweh than Jesus" (p. 153).

The potentially offensive nature of the theory thus advanced is obvious. Not only are these very extraordinary claims, advanced on the basis of very thin (or non-existent) evidence, but their relevance also escape the reviewer. What does any of this have to do with how animals were viewed and treated in Nazi Germany?

In addition to this peculiar presentation, which takes up most of its pages, the book also performs its apparently secondary function of describing actual Nazi animal rights policy poorly. On this matter, Sax even repeats some outright myths, such as the idea that German SS members were required to raise puppies and then strangle them in order to prove their loyalty to the Party (p. 169). This legend circulates in many places on the Internet, but is complete nonsense; that this book endorses it would tend to make this reviewer doubt other claims it makes, which are less well known but sound equally fantastic (and grotesque).

The one good thing about "Animals in the Third Reich" is the portions cited from an actual primary source of relevance, a compilation of all Nazi animal-protection legislation by Giese and Kahler (published by Duncker & Humboldt, 1944). As this tome is in German, and further not currently in print, it will likely remain obscure to the vast majority of non-specialists, and thus Sax is in fact making a genuine contribution to research in making a rivulet of its content available to more casual readers. (We learn, for example, that in Nazi Germany fish had to be anesthesized prior to killing -- Which, incidentally, very few countries seem to require today -- and that there were elaborate provisions made for the protection of animals during transport by train or motor truck.) There is also an appendix providing a full English translation of the original Reichstierschutzgesetz (or Federal Law for the Protection of Animals), which initiated the Nazi humane legislation, in its slightly amended form as of 1938; this too will be of great interest to non-German-speakers. These sections raise the book just above the one-star mark, making it all the more regrettable that they appear as nothing so much as an afterthought casually added to the main body of the author's pseudo-psychological ramblings.
3 of 6 people found the following review helpful
5.0 out of 5 stars Wonderful Exploration of Unexplored Topic April 22 2010
By Eros Faust - Published on Amazon.com
Format:Hardcover
Anyone who reads this book and criticizes its scholarship is suspect in my opinion. The scholarship here is excellent, its the information that is controversial. The book contains translations of many of the National Socialist Animal Rights Acts.

Animal rights activists will hate the conclusions to be drawn from this research, in the same way that they hated the Nazi War on Cancer. However, understanding that the National Socialists had a domestic problem that would appeal to many modern progressives makes it that much more fascinating.
8 of 23 people found the following review helpful
1.0 out of 5 stars A Laudable Project, Poorly Executed Feb. 7 2002
By A Customer - Published on Amazon.com
Format:Hardcover
Unfortunately, this beautifully written, morally reflective book was inadequately researched. Many of the author's anecdotes were simply culled from secondary sources (some of questionable reliability), and the book even contains lengthy sections of entirely unfootnoted assertions. Sax seems unaware of major recent work on Nazi Germany of direct relevance to the issues he addresses - Christopher Browning's "Ordinary Men," Ian Kershaw's "Hitler Myth", Paul Weindling's "Health, Race and German Politics" and Kurt Schleunes', "A Twisted Road to Auschwitz" are all missing from his bibliography. As a result, his book unfortunately adds little to contemporary scholarly understanding of the Nazi regime, despite the novelty and importance of his initial questions.
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