The late Fr. Roland de Vaux was the excavator of Qumran, the home of the religious establishment to which the Dead Sea Scrolls belonged. He was also the organizer of the international team charged with editing the manuscripts. He was, therefore, singularly well placed to apply the evidence of archaeology to the interpretation of the documents. In his Schweich Lectures, delivered at the Academy in 1959, and published in French in 1961, Fr. de Vaux described in detail and archaeological evidence relating both to the scrolls and to the community which owned and may have written them. Shortly before his death in 1971, Fr. de Vaux had completed the revision of these lectures, incorporating much new material which had come to light since the first edition was published. This is included in this second edition translated into English under his own supervision.