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Mr. Kelly begins his book on Business Patterns with a survey of software company types. This approach struck me oddly because his title (if it is in fact his choice) BUSINESS PATTERNS FOR SOFTWARE DEVELOPERS suggests a technical work on recurring patterns that developers (a.k.a. programmers, software engineers, etc,) can employ in designing and writing code.
This book is for developers, to be sure. But it ought have a wider audience. Everybody in a software company, and many in business units will benefit from this book. I tried to think of some role that would not. I could not.
The evolution of software development describes an arc that has moved from the singular creation of software for a single purpose to the notion of a real product, with all that entails. In my experience, we are so good at developing crack software that we ignore its larger context as a product. Foreshadowing further, products sit in the context of the entire business world and tradition. Hang on just a bit if I have not turned you away.
Developers, or at least their keepers, are forever talking about the SDLC. Good as it is, the software development life-cycle is not to be confused with the product life-cycle, and neither with the life-cycle of companies. So Mr. Kelly yanks us back to consider the larger context of a software company.
So, instead of being project centric, he expands the scope to product centric. Later he will spiral again to the context of running a company. He is looking for analogous patterns at each level of the spiral.
Finance jerks always want to express the larger problem of what to do with software products as maximizing immediate returns. They always have new and better jobs after you are already dead. Finance champs all know that the area under the curve is the whole life of the company. That curve is the only non-destructive maximization. The rest is grift.
Most start-ups that do not fail quickly do not go past the initial phase of the early success attributed to a good idea. It may sometimes be given something resembling money. But, rather than using this initial success to enable, and more importantly to adjust to the next juicy market, the natural, uninformed tendency is to do more of the same, thereby missing the boat. The perfect balance is the dynamic dance between innovative risk and mundane financial muddling.
By the time Mr. Kelly gets to his discussion of strategy, it seems that developers are nearly always better assets when they know what their firm is doing, and thereby they align, however tangentially, to the company goals:
"Without shared understanding between individuals of what the company strategy is and its intentions are, there is risk of no coordination between apartments, teams and individuals: each runs in a different direction and then there is little overall forward movement"
Strategy, it turns out, is not only intentional, it emerges from the forces of the past. Therefore, it is foolish to embark on a strategy that you think is a good idea but divorced from the past. As emergent strategy cannot successfully drive the future, it does offer the real context to ground a real strategy forged from the intentional and the emergent. He refers us to Mintzberg from his "Strategy as a pattern; a consistent pattern over time. "
Strategy is not the plan; it is the thinking behind the plan.
It follows that, if patterns exist, they have an inductive aspect to them. Inductive reasoning of pattern progression can be a powerful analytical tool, but it is not enough to effect a brake through. In another curious analogy to pure software development, he says, "...as strategy is implemented it must allow for emergent properties."
Formal change control is an important discipline if the product is to fruit. Agile development needs agility strategy, if you will excuse the methodological pun.
Mr. Kelly provides a basic survey of funding start-ups. Ye who dance with Venture Capitalists best learn the steps before the music begins. If you play Faust, you better know how high you will be made to jump at each round of VC funding.
Next comes an extended discussion about classes or categories of products, and of how they live in the marketplace. He moves away from strictly software companies, and for good reason. Lifecycle patterns are easier to see when software people are not just looking in their own yard. Better to get out and see that product types, their characteristics and attributes, without the unintentional distraction caused by the familiar. Mr. Kelly is a superior pattern analyst and a superior strategist.
Surely as night follows day, marketing follows product in the developmental context (as opposed to the mature company). Thusly are going concerns built from start-up software companies. To move from a generic, or core product to an optimized company that grows nicely, there are more aspects to the grand strategy, or, as he names it, "the whole product".
Sound like quite a lot for one book, and one that is but 300 pages. We have come a long way, yet something is missing. The customer has gone missing.
Just as in product strategy, where he is loudly against the temptation to divert vital company energy into engineering one-offs, so he is likewise bold with customer focus:
ASSUME ALL CUSTOMERS ARE SIMILAR
It is not that you are not customer oriented, but that your product management does not dilute itself over functionality not common to your target customers. Get to market with your product and learn how to improve while growing over time.
Once you are in the marketplace, it is time to consider distribution models, which inturn shape sales strategy. He favors account management by pairs of business with technical.
Only in the final third does he tackle the tricky world of services - hard to manage; hard to track - and the hardest to sustain. The bankruptcy courts are strewn with the charred corpses of successful product companies that let this tail wag the dog and ruin the purse.
Finally, he returns to his opening theme, pattern, for a summary yet philosophical discussion. Again, he turns to his architect mentor, Christopher Alexander. His "The Nature of Order" is a worthwhile study for the ambitious reader.
This book is for all sorts of technology people, from those in start-ups to those wanting a make-over, from skunk-works to seasoned developers. For a senior manager, save money on consulting fees. This book is a guard against their invasive capture of your vision and your money, and a good companion to your strategic planning.
This book is a good guide for managers at all levels, whether writing a business plan or developing staff. Use this book to plan your year as a small part of your staff meetings. Assign chapters or sections, perhaps on a monthly schedule, or at least a quarterly one. They make for good team working sessions. Align and conquer.