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As in the first edition, my guiding philosophy in writing this book has three elements. The first element is my belief that in the long run students are best served by learning basic concepts in a general setting. Second, I believe that students need to be motivated by seeing how the principles apply to specific and interesting problems in their own fields. The third element of my philosophy is to take every opportunity to make learning free of frustration for the student.
This book covers circuit analysis, digital systems, electronics, and electromechanics at a level appropriate for either electrical-engineering students in an introductory course or nonmajors in a survey course. The only essential prerequisites are basic physics and single-variable calculus. Teaching a course using this book offers opportunities to develop theoretical and experimental skills and experiences in the following areas:
While the emphasis of this book is on basic concepts, a key feature is the inclusion of short articles scattered throughout showing how electrical-engineering concepts are applied in other fields. The subjects of these articles include anti-knock signal processing for internal combustion engines, a cardiac pacemaker, active noise control, and the use of the Global Positioning System in surveying, among others.
I welcome comments from users of this book. Information on how the book could be improved is especially valuable and will be taken to heart in future revisions. My e-mail address is firstname.lastname@example.orgSOFTWARE
Two CDs are included with this book. One contains the evaluation version of LabVIEW 6I which is briefly discussed in Section 9.4. LabVIEW has become the industry standard software package for engineering instrumentation and testing. The intention is to make students aware of how LabVIEW coupled with a personal computer and a data acquisition board can be used to rapidly create special-purpose instrumentation and control systems. Later when they have the need to design such systems, they will have enough knowledge to establish a proper direction for further development of their computer-aided instrumentation skills.
The second CD contains Orcad Family Release 9.2 Lite Edition. This is a powerful suite of programs produced by Cadence Systems for circuit analysis and design. In Appendix D, we show how to use Capture for entering circuit diagrams and setting up analyses, PSpice for analyzing the circuit, and Probe for viewing results. A number of circuits selected from throughout the book, starting in Chapter 2, are taken as examples. Students find computer-aided analysis to be an effective method for extending their "feel" for circuits and for checking some of the answers obtained through traditional analysis.
Besides the evaluation programs, the virtual instruments (LabVIEW programs) and circuit files discussed in the book are included on the CDs. Furthermore, solutions to the in-chapter exercises, answers for selected end-of-chapter problems, and summaries of key equations for each chapter are included in pdf files on both CDs.CHANGES AND NEW FEATURES IN THE SECOND EDITION
The book includes various pedagogical features designed with the goal of stimulating student interest, eliminating frustration, and engendering an awareness of the relevance of the material to their chosen profession. These features are:
Courses based on this book provide excellent opportunities to meet many of the directed outcomes for accreditation. The Criteria for Accrediting Engineering Programs (for evaluations during the 2001-2002 accreditation cycle) require that graduates of accredited programs have "an ability to apply knowledge of mathematics, science, and engineering" and "an ability to identify, formulate, and solve engineering problems." This book, in its entirety, is aimed at developing these abilities.
Also, graduates must have "an ability to design and conduct experiments, as well as analyze and interpret data." Chapter 9, Computer-Based Instrumentation Systems, helps to develop this ability. If the course includes a laboratory, this ability can be developed even further.
Furthermore, the criteria require "an ability to function on multi-disciplinary teams" and "an ability to communicate effectively." Courses based on this book contribute to these abilities by giving nonmajors the knowledge and vocabulary to communicate effectively with electrical engineers. The book also helps to inform electrical engineers about applications in other fields of engineering. To aid in communication skills, end-of-chapter problems that ask students to explain electrical-engineering concepts in their own words have been added in this edition.
The LabVIEW and Orcad PSpice software packages distributed with this book contribute to developing "an ability to use the techniques, skills, and modern engineering tools necessary for engineering practice."SOLUTIONS MANUAL AND WEB SITE
Students can find solutions for the in-chapter exercises and answers (without solutions) for selected end-of-chapter problems on both of the CDs included with the book and on the web site. The web site also contains many links to interesting sites related to topics covered in the book.
Any corrections that may be needed for the book or solutions manual will be posted on the web site as they are found.CONTENT AND ORGANIZATION Part I Circuits
Chapter 1 defines current, voltage, power, and energy. Kirchhoff's laws are introduced. Voltage sources, current sources, and resistance are defined.
Chapter 2 treats resistive circuits. Analysis by network reduction, node voltages, and mesh currents is covered. Thévenin equivalents, superposition, and the heatstone bridge are treated.
Capacitance, inductance, and mutual inductance are treated in Chapter 3.
Transients in electrical circuits are discussed in Chapter 4. First-order RL and RC circuits and time constants are covered followed by a discussion of second-order circuits.
Chapter 5 considers sinusoidal steady-state circuit behavior. (A review of complex arithmetic is included in Appendix A.,) Power calculations, ac Thévenin and Norton equivalents, and balanced three-phase circuits are treated.
Chapter 6 covers frequency response, Bode plots, resonance, and filters. The basic concept of Fourier theory (that signals are composed of sinusoidal components having various amplitudes, phases, and frequencies) is qualitatively discussed. A section on digital signal processing has been added in this edition.Part II Digital Systems
Chapter 7 introduces logic gates and the representation of numerical data in binary form. It then proceeds to discuss combinatorial and sequential logic. Boolean algebra, De Morgan's laws, truth tables, Karnaugh maps, coders, decoders, flip flops, and registers are discussed.
Chapter 8 treats microcomputers with emphasis on embedded systems using the Motorola 68HCll as the primary example. Computer organization and memory types are discussed. Digital process control using microcontrollers is described in general terms. Finally, selected instructions and addressing modes for the 68HCll are described. Assembly language programming is treated very briefly.
Chapter 9, which is new in the second edition, discusses computer-based instrumentation systems including measurement concepts, sensors, signal conditioning, and analog-to-digital conversion. The chapter ends with a discussion of LabVIEW including an example virtual instrument that students can duplicate using the evaluation version on their own computers.Part III Electronics
Chapter 10 presents the diode, its various models, load-line analysis, and diode circuits such as rectifiers, Zener-diode regulators, and wave-shapers.
In Chapter 11, the specifications and imperfections of amplifiers that need to be considered in applications are discussed from a users perspective. These include gain, input impedance, output impedance, loading effects, frequency response, pulse response, nonlinear distortion, common-mode rejection, and dc offsets.
Chapter 12 contains a totally revised treatment of the MOS field-effect transistor, its characteristic curves, load-line analysis, large-signal and small-signal models, bias circuits, the common-source amplifier, and the source follower.
Chapter 13 gives a similar treatment for bipolar transistors. If desired, the order of Chapters 12 and 13 can be reversed. Another possibility is to skip most of both chapters so more time can be devoted to other topics.
Chapter 14 treats the operational amplifier and many of its applications. Non-majors can learn enough from this chapter to design and use op-amp circuits for instrumentation applications in their own fields.Part IV Electromechanics
Chapter 15 reviews basic magnetic field theory, analyzes magnetic circuits, and presents transformers.
Dc machines and ac machines are treated in Chapters 16 and 17, respectively. The emphasis is on motors rather than generators because the nonelectrical engineer applies motors much more often than generators. In Chapter 16, an overall view of motors in general is presented before considering do motors, their equivalent circuits, and performance calculations. The universal motor and its applications are discussed.
Chapter 17 deals with ac motors starting with the three-phase induction motor. Synchronous motors and their advantages with respect to power-factor correction are analyzed. Small motors including single-phase induction motors are also discussed. A section on stepper motors has been added.ACKNOWLEDGMENTS
I especially want to thank Michigan Technological University President Curt Tompkins and the Chair of my department, Dr. Tim Schulz, for their support. I also wish to thank my colleagues, past and present, in the Electrical and Computer Engineering Department at Michigan Technological University, all of whom have given me help and encouragement at one time or another in writing this book and in my other projects.
I have received much excellent advice from professors at other institutions who reviewed the manuscript in various stages. This advice has improved the final result a great deal, and I am grateful for their help. The reviewers for the first edition were:
Edwin L. Gerber, Drexel University;
Belinda B. Wang, University of Toronto;
Edgar A. O'Hair, Texas Tech University;
Phil Noe, Texas A & M University;
Joseph A. Coppola, Syracuse University;
Rodger E. Ziemer, University of Colorado, Colorado Springs;
Len Trombetta, University of Houston;
Carl Wells, Washington State University;
Zoran Gajic, Rutgers University;
Richard S. Marleau, University of Wisconsin;
Robert Collin, Case Western University;
W.T. Easter, North Carolina State University;
John Pavlat, Iowa State University;
Edward Yang, Columbia University;
Ibrahim Abdel-Motaled, Northwestern University;
Clifford Pollock, Cornell University;
Victor Gerez, Montana State University;
William Sayle II, Georgia Institute of Technology;
Michael Reed, Carnegie Mellon University;
D. B. Brumm, Michigan Technological University;
Sunanda Mitra, Texas Tech University;
Elmer Grubbs, New Mexico Highlands University.
I also thank Professor A1 Wicks of Virginia Tech who reviewed the manuscript for the second edition and supplied excellent suggestions for improvement.
Over the years, many students and faculty using my books at Michigan Technological University and elsewhere have made many excellent suggestions for improving the books and correcting errors. I thank them very much.
I am indebted to Tom Robbins, my editor at Prentice Hall, for keeping me pointed in the right direction and for many excellent suggestions that have improved my books a great deal.
Also, I want to thank Tony for his continuing encouragement and valuable insights. I thank Judy for many good things too extensive to list.Allan R. Hambley
Finding and developing practical ways to provide the energy needed for modern technical societies on a sustainable basis without disrupting the environment is the most important problem confronting the coming generation of engineers and scientists. Among the proposed energy sources, two of which (solar and wind) are used by the dandelion to grow and disperse its seeds are:
Enhanced power grids may need to be built to distribute energy from some of these proposed solutions. Conservation must also play a part, possibly including:
Regardless of which solutions ultimately emerge, it is certain that all of the topics discussed in this book will play important roles. For example, see the Practical Application concerning energy-storage systems for electric vehicles starting on page 100.See all Product Description