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Fundamentals of Applied Electromagnetics [Hardcover]

Fawwaz T. Ulaby

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Book Description

Sept. 10 2006 0132413264 978-0132413268 5

Widely acclaimed both in the U.S. and abroad, this reader-friendly yet authoritative volume bridges the gap between circuits and new electromagnetics material. Ulaby begins coverage with transmission lines, leading readers from familiar concepts into more advanced topics and applications. Includes six new sections on Waveguides and Cavity Resonators, replacing the material on geometric optics in Chapter 8. Presents new Technology Briefs on relevant topics, connecting concepts in the book to everyday applications found in real life, such as liquid crystal displays, the laser, GPS, and x-ray tomography. Includes an interactive CD-ROM that allows readers to gain physical intuition about electromagnetics. A useful reference for engineers.


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Product Description

From the Inside Flap

Why Another EM Book?

Several textbooks are currently available for teaching electromagnetics to students majoring in electrical engineering. So, why do we need another one? The answer is simple: (1) the curriculum for a bachelor's degree in electrical engineering is undergoing a radical change, perhaps more radical in both outlook and content than any of the curricular changes we have witnessed over the past several decades, and (2) available textbooks are incompatible with the philosophy of the new curriculum proposed for the twenty-first century (see, for example, the article by Director et al. in the Proceedings of the IEEE, September 1995).

The Changing Curriculum

For a bachelor's degree in electrical engineering, the curriculum has undergone about one major change per decade. In the 1960s, courses concerning solid-state devices were introduced and those on vacuum-tube electronics were slowly phased out. In the 1970s, courses on electric machinery nearly disappeared from the curricula of most universities and were replaced with computer-programming courses. More computer-related and digital processing courses were added in the 1980s, mainly by increasing the volume of required courses and reducing the number of technical and free electives. Also, there has been a sustained effort to incorporate new knowledge and assimilate the rapidly evolving role of technology in the undergraduate curriculum. More material was added to courses, greater effort was expected from students, and the number of elective credit hours rapidly approached zero. By the early 1990s, the average student at a U.S. university needed closer to five years to complete what was originally designed as a four-year program.

This scenario was not limited to electrical engineering; indeed, in almost any engineering discipline, the curriculum had become too demanding in terms of time to complete the B.S. degree and too inflexible to accommodate changes. From these pressures was born a new philosophy embracing the following tenets: (1) the B.S. degree program should be scaled back to four years, (2) the required part of the B.S. degree program should focus on the teaching of fundamentals, but with greater exposure to engineering applications, and (3) the electives portion of the program should be increased substantially to allow the student to explore both engineering and nonengineering areas of interest. While this new philosophy has been adopted, as least in principle, by many engineering schools, the task of revising the curriculum has been a major challenge, particularly at the course level. The new electrical engineering curriculum calls for allocating fewer credit hours in many of the traditionally core areas—electromagnetics (EM) among them. At many universities the required EM content of the program has been reduced from two courses down to one. For some, the intent is to continue to offer a two-course sequence, but with only the first being part of the required core and the second being for students interested in deepening their knowledge in electromagnetics.

Course Contents

Given these objectives and associated boundary conditions, what then should be the contents of a one-semester or a two-course sequence in electromagnetics and what texts might one use for this purpose? To answer these questions, we should briefly review the traditional approaches that have been in use over the past two decades. Most EM books share a common template. They begin with one or more chapters on vector calculus and coordinate systems, followed by two or more chapters on statics (electrostatics and magnetostatics). These topics typically constitute half of the total material, and the second half usually covers dynamics (time-varying fields, wave propagation and reflection, waveguides and resonators, and antennas). Such an arrangement of topics presents two problems. First, starting a course with a heavy dose of mathematics tends to "turn the students off." And second, whereas electrostatics and magnetostatics are interesting subjects in themselves and have many practical applications, their importance pales in comparison with the many applications of time-varying fields to communication systems, radar, optics, computers, and solid-state electronics, among others. Thus, teaching statics only in the required portion of the B.S. degree curriculum would leave an electrical engineering student seriously lacking in ability to deal with most electromagnetic phenomena.

Because of the heavy emphasis on mathematical manipulations using vector calculus and the relatively dry character of electrostatics and magnetostatics, the student who completes such a required course is unlikely to select to take the second course in the sequence, which is where many of the topics relevant to engineering practice are covered. Clearly, teaching from a book based on this traditional sequence of topics is no longer compatible with the format of the new curriculum proposed for the twenty-first century.

In past years, attempts have been made by educators at various universities to teach the dynamics of electromagnetics without preceding it with a study of statics. These attempts have not been very successful, primarily because in dynamics students must deal with several fundamental parameters simultaneously. These include spatial coordinates denoting location, vectors denoting direction, time, and the interconnection between the electric and magnetic fields. In statics, the electric and magnetic fields are independent of one another and time is not a variable, thereby reducing the number of parameters from four to two. By studying electrostatics and magnetostatics first, the student can much more easily tackle situations involving time-varying fields.

This Book

In view of this background, how then does one design an appropriate one-semester or two-course sequence in electromagnetics? My answer to this question is characterized in this book by the following elements:

1. I wanted to begin by building a bridge between what was already familiar to a third-year electrical engineering student and the electromagnetics material. Prior to enrolling in an EM course, a typical student will have taken two or more courses in circuits. Thus, he or she is familiar with circuit analysis, Ohm's law, Kirchoff's current and voltage laws, and related topics. Transmission lines constitute a natural bridge between electric circuits and electromagnetics. Without having to deal with vectors or fields, the student uses already familiar concepts to learn about wave motion, the reflection and transmission of power, phasors, impedance matching, and many of the properties of wave propagation in a guided structure. All of these newly learned concepts will prove invaluable later (in Chapters 7 though 9) and will facilitate the learning of how plane waves propagate in free space and in material media. Transmission lines are covered in Chapter 2, which is preceded in Chapter 1 with reviews of complex numbers and phasor analysis.

2. The next part of the book, contained in Chapters 3 through 5, covers vector analysis, electrostatics, and magnetostatics. Compared with most EM textbooks written for undergraduate instruction, the present book differs in terms of its presentation of these three topics in the following two ways: Of the total number of pages contained in the book, about 30% are allocated to these topics, compared with 50% or more in most EM textbooks. The electrostatics chapter begins with Maxwell's equations for the time-varying case, which are then specialized to electrostatics and magnetostatics, thereby 'providing the student with an overall framework for what is to come and showing him or her why electrostatics and magnetostatics are special cases of the more a general time-varying case.

3. Unlike most EM textbooks, this book does not have a chapter on waveguides and resonators. Space limitations and the fact that waveguides are no longer used as widely as they had been prior to 1980 dictated this change.

4. Chapter 6 deals with time-varying fields and sets the stage for the material in Chapters 7 through 9. Chapter 7 covers plane-wave propagation in dielectric; and conducting media, and Chapter 8 covers reflection and transmission at discontinuous boundaries and introduces the student to fiber optics and the imaging properties of mirrors and lenses.

In Chapter 9, the student is introduced to the principles of radiation by currents flowing in wires, such as dipoles, as well as to radiation by apertures, such as a horn antenna or an opening in an opaque screen illuminated by a light source.

5. To give the student a taste of the wide-ranging applications of electromagnetics in today's technological society, Chapter 10 concludes the book with overview presentations of two system examples: satellite communication systems and radar sensors.

6. The material in this book was written for a two-semester sequence of six credits, but it is possible to trim it down to generate a syllabus for a one-semester four-credit course. The table on the preceding page provides syllabi for each of these two options.

In writing this book, I avoided lengthy derivations of theorems, particularly those involving extensive use of vector calculus. My goal has been to help the student to develop competence in applying vector calculus to solve electromagnetic problems of practical interest. 1 view vector calculus and mathematics in general as useful tools and not as ends in themselves. Throughout the material, emphasis is placed on using the mathematics to explain and clarify the physics, followed with practical examples intended to demonstrate the engineering relevance of physical concepts. I believe the combination of the approach used in presenting the material, the arrangement of topics covered in the book, and the relative emphasis in favor of dynamics constitutes an effective algorithm for equipping our future graduates with a relevant foundation in applied electromagnetics.

--This text refers to an out of print or unavailable edition of this title.

From the Back Cover

Widely acclaimed both in the U.S. and abroad, this reader-friendly yet authoritative volume bridges the gap between circuits and new electromagnetics material. Ulaby begins coverage with transmission lines, leading readers from familiar concepts into more advanced topics and applications. Includes six new sections on Waveguides and Cavity Resonators, replacing the material on geometric optics in Chapter 8. Presents new Technology Briefs on relevant topics, connecting concepts in the book to everyday applications found in real life, such as liquid crystal displays, the laser, GPS, and x-ray tomography. Includes an interactive CD-ROM that allows readers to gain physical intuition about electromagnetics. A useful reference for engineers.

--This text refers to an alternate Hardcover edition.

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Most Helpful Customer Reviews on Amazon.com (beta)
Amazon.com: 3.6 out of 5 stars  23 reviews
13 of 14 people found the following review helpful
4.0 out of 5 stars Slim book, can teach you many concepts Dec 19 2004
By Karl Becker - Published on Amazon.com
Format:Hardcover|Verified Purchase
Electromagnetics book

The lightest textbook in my backpack, but certainly not the emptiest. This high information-density volume contains a wealth of knowledge, examples, and fairly readable text about the subject - and the CD is actually helpful!

At the beginning of the semester I had no idea what material the electromagnetics class consisted of, but now at the end I can look back and see a large number of topics presented in a fairly logical progression. The book's modus operandi is: teach/review the underlying math concept, then use that math to tackle an electromagnetics problem. I enjoyed this approach a lot, though I agree with my professor that the order of presentation is a little questionable. We shuffled between chapters 3 and 4 so as not to dwell on pure math as much and instead deal with physical, practical problems. For example, instead of learning both divergence and curl simultaneously, we first learned divergence and then used it solve some problems involving Electric fields. Then we went back, learned curl, and applied it to different problems.

I was overwhelmed with the sheer variety of topics covered in this course. There seemed to be too many ways to do problems, and I couldn't get a good feel for when to use which method. The book's examples and explanations helped for homework sets, but come test time I usually knew three ways to solve it but wasn't sure which way would produce the proper result. In an hour testing situation, I don't have time to try out all three ways on every problem!

There must be a way to teach these concepts in a more targeted method, but I don't know how. I feel I have a good knowledge of the material from the book, though, and the CD's examples were very good. The CD showed step-by-step work for problems from the text, and had its own examples not in the book that did a good job demonstrating a concept. Don't throw away the CD!

The svelte size of this book impresses me, because it shows the author cared enough to trim his wordage to a reasonable level. This should keep students happy, both in their backpacks and their studying.
9 of 9 people found the following review helpful
4.0 out of 5 stars Physics, No. Engineering, Yes Sept. 14 2008
By denton - Published on Amazon.com
Format:Hardcover
After reading through all the reviews and quickly attempting to discern the background of each reviewer through contextual clues, it has reinforced the idea that physics majors hate this book and engineers enjoy it.

Speaking as a prior physics major and now currently an EE major, I have seen both types of texts. A dynamics book would cover the subject with much less explanation (while allowing more critical thought, although requiring a much closer reading) and leave it up to the reader to fill in the pieces. A great exercise in the critical thinking physics majors need.

Engineers need to know the facts and how to approach the problems to get a meaningful result and this is exactly what the book provides. I was bothered by the presentation in this regard having used physics texts but I have seen much much worse.

Like the title of the book says, its applied fundamentals of emag and that is exactly what is laid out in the text.
12 of 14 people found the following review helpful
4.0 out of 5 stars Simple and Clear - Good Backup for Physics Majors April 16 2005
By physics major - Published on Amazon.com
Format:Hardcover
Good coverage of the basic concepts of E+M. I found this text very useful as a backup for Griffiths E+M (standard undergrad text for physics majors). The math is simple (not a legendre polynomial in sight) and the concepts are clear. The coverage of static fields in materials is especially easy to understand. You're not going to find the dielectric tensor covered here, just the basics layed out in an intuitive format.
6 of 6 people found the following review helpful
5.0 out of 5 stars Having read more than one or two or ten emag books.... Dec 14 2007
By nebraskann - Published on Amazon.com
Format:Hardcover
...this book is a great investment. Ulaby is kind enough to cover the math - THEN the subject, which unless you're proficient in vector calc, will be important. There are examples - they have answers! This is a wonderful place to start your journey into electromagnetics, particularly if you learn through doing. I really came to understand Maxwell's equations through this book. The only downside (if you could call it that) is the lack of theory, but don't worry - that'll come. You may not be able to derive Maxwell's equations but you can use'm!
13 of 16 people found the following review helpful
2.0 out of 5 stars Just throws equations at you Oct. 27 2008
By I. Gurin - Published on Amazon.com
Format:Hardcover|Verified Purchase
The text is difficult to follow. The short-range organization is quite good, but the long-range organization is weak. Go to the next page and you will likely have a hard time figuring out how the material there relates to what you were just reading. Many good lectures use this kind of structure, but I find that it does not make a good textbook.

The text lacks coherent derivations. Ulaby just throws equations at you without linking them together strongly. For instance, the input impedance of a transmission line with an arbitrary load (arguably the most important relation in the entire chapter on transmission lines) is derived piecemeal over the course of several sections. The derivation really isn't hard, though - it could easily have been done in two pages. Ulaby does put nice blue boxes around the particularly important equations, but that doesn't help much.

I found the treatment too simple for an upper-division course. Ulaby "misses the forest for the trees" by dwelling on details that should be simple to an upper-division engineering student.

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