For those who wish to understand both "how" and "why" events on September 11th occurred, I think this is the best single-source of information and analysis. Hoge and Rose have assembled and edited 23 essays written by a commendably diverse number of authorities on separate but related subjects which include an "anatomy of the terrorist attack" (Brian M. Jenkins). "Islam through history" (Karen Armstrong), "prevention, deterrence, defense" (William J. Perry), "the economic repercussions" (Martin N. Bailey), and "what September 11th hath wrought" (Fareed Zakaria). Obviously, all of us (including these and other authorities) are still sorting through and correlating new information as it becomes available. Definitive "answers" to the questions we now ask may not be determined for years and perhaps not for decades. Obviously, the events which occurred on September 11th did not occur in a vacuum. Moreover, the implications and consequences of those events continue to reveal themselves. For me, this anthology's greatest value lies in the frame of reference which the essayists create. Hoge and Rose conclude their Introduction as follows: "As we mourn the dead, we must also absorb the lessons, some of which are grim. Additional terrorist attacks on America are likely. Chemical and biological weapons may be used. September 11, an outrage and a tragedy for us, is an inspiration for terrorists. Only preparedness, determination, and ultimately, self-confidence can offset the forebodings. The moral that Winston Churchill chose for his towering history of the previous global conflict is as apt now as it was then:
In War: Resolution
In Defeat: Defiance
In Victory: Magnanimity
In Peace: Goodwill
Those who carefully read this book will also be better prepared to understand what has yet to occur, not only in the United States but throughout the world.