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Incomplete Nature Hardcover – Oct 25 2011


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Product Details

  • Hardcover: 544 pages
  • Publisher: WW Norton; 1 edition (Oct. 25 2011)
  • Language: English
  • ISBN-10: 0393049914
  • ISBN-13: 978-0393049916
  • Product Dimensions: 1.7 x 0.5 x 2.4 cm
  • Shipping Weight: 839 g
  • Average Customer Review: 5.0 out of 5 stars  See all reviews (3 customer reviews)
  • Amazon Bestsellers Rank: #113,237 in Books (See Top 100 in Books)

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Review

A profound shift in thinking that in magnitude can only be compared with those that followed upon the works of Darwin and Einstein. --Robert E. Ulanowicz, author of A Third Window: Natural Life beyond Newton and Darwin"

About the Author

Terrence W. Deacon is a professor of biological anthropology and neuroscience and the chair of anthropology at the University of California, Berkeley.

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4 of 4 people found the following review helpful By Gary Fuhrman TOP 50 REVIEWER on Dec 31 2011
Format: Hardcover Verified Purchase
If you have a deep desire to understand how life emerged from a nonliving material universe, and how sentience emerged from life, and human-style consciousness from sentience, then this book is for you. Deacon deploys the full range of concepts which have already been developed by writers such as Charles S. Peirce, Gregory Bateson, Maturana and Varela, Ilya Prigogine, and Stuart Kauffman to explain how physical principles can lead to biological principles and thence to the realm of psychology and even spirituality. But rather than merely summarize these contributions and add his own, Deacon builds his account of emergence from the ground up, beginning with the basic question: How is it that we find ourselves in a universe where things and actions have meaning and value for us, where intentions can make a physical difference? In the course of rethinking this kind of question, he fills in many of the gaps left open by previous accounts, and thus tells us a more complete and lucid story of emergence than anyone has done before -- which is ironic in a way, in view of his conclusion that living beings are radically incomplete, and consciousness emerges from this incompleteness.

Some of us are content to fend off this kind of question with the belief that the Creator's purposes preceded the creation, and now pervade it in some mysterious way. But taking purposefulness for granted prevents us from getting to the bottom of it. Deacon appeals to perfectly ordinary experiences, informed by the purely physical concepts of energy and work, to explain how purpose could arise unintentionally -- spontaneously, but not instantaneously. He does find it necessary to introduce some new conceptual tools along the way.
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1 of 1 people found the following review helpful By Dr. Katja Neves-Graca on April 25 2013
Format: Hardcover Verified Purchase
I have little doubt that this book will prove to be a turning point in scholarly understandings of matter, mind, information, embodiment, and communication. Moreover, it is written in such accessible language that highly complex concepts become intelligible to non-experts. I such enjoyed reading and re-reading the book that I am ordering additional copies to give as gifts to friends. Please note that although accessible to wider audiences this is a serious academic book of outstanding rigous/quality; it is not a washed down popular culture treatment of the issues it tackles.
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By Graeme E. Smith on Oct. 28 2014
Format: Paperback Verified Purchase
A tour de force, bringing together the missing bits and pieces of understanding the mind without resorting to the homunculis.

Recommended by Daniel Dennet.
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Amazon.com: 41 reviews
145 of 178 people found the following review helpful
As Game Changing As Origin Of The Species Nov. 13 2011
By Taowin - Published on Amazon.com
Format: Hardcover
If it were a snake it would have bit us. It's sitting right under our noses. It's the unifying insight behind the two biggest breakthrough clues toward solving the biggest remaining scientific mystery. Grateful and greatly encouraged by the breakthrough clues we ran with them, ignoring their underlying and unifying insight, the insight that made them both possible. We ignored the underlying insight until Deacon's book, whose 600 exquisitely reasoned and written pages I'll attempt to summarize here.

The biggest remaining scientific mystery is how to close the explanatory gap between the hard and the soft sciences, between energy and information, between physical forces and living desires, between a values-neutral physio-chemical universe and the values-driven bio-psycho-social universe--in a word, between clockwork physics and ever-game-changing life.

In other words, why can we talk about a living creature's intentions, preferences, desires, appetites, adaptations, functions, and purposes, but not a rock, a planet's, or an atom's? What changed, making information and intention cause matter to behave so differently, the way it most obviously does with life? And precisely how do intentions change things?

The two biggest breakthrough clues are evolutionary theory and information theory, and the overlooked underlying insight is about where to look for what life does differently--not in things themselves but in differences, and in particular differences between behaviors that do and don't persist, differences between what remains present and what becomes absent.

Darwin discovered how differential survival, the proliferation of some lineages and the disappearance and absence of others yielded game-changing adaptations over time. Life doesn't require a creator-thing, or an improver-thing in order to evolve. Instead, it requires a difference between the lineages that stay present and the lineages that become absent.

We have embraced Darwin's breakthrough but haven't embraced what it tells us about where to look to finish solving science's greatest mystery. Instead, we treat differential survival as a creator-thing, for example when we say that natural selection designs a trait. And we treat DNA as an improver-thing, a magically powerful yet merely physio-chemical-thing that improves organisms.

Information theory may be less familiar to you than evolutionary theory but its consequences are everywhere. Pioneered by Claude Shannon, information theory made modern computers possible and gave us such essential and commonplace terms as bit, megabyte and pixel. Shannon, an engineer at Bell Labs came up with a simple functional definition of information, as again, a difference between what remains present and what becomes absent.

Pick a card, any card. Before you pick there are 52 possibilities. After you pick there's one. The step-down from 52 to one--the difference between what could have been picked, and what turned out to be picked is a measure of the amount of information gained in the process. Information is not a thing. It's a narrowing of possibility.

Again, though we ran with Shannon's breakthrough, we ignored its underlying insight. We treat information as a thing in computers, in the bit, the hard drive or the memory chip.

We are very thing-oriented.

We are so thing-oriented that, though it has been over 150 years since thermodynamic theory showed that energy is not a thing but a difference, we still treat energy as a thing. Put a frozen pizza in a hot oven and the temperature difference equalizes. And yet we still talk as though we're pumping some heat-thing into the pizza. We pump an energy-thing into our gas tanks and in and out of batteries.

We are so thing-oriented that we ignore how a whirlpool is not a thing but a remainder, a difference between what remains present and what becomes absent as turbulence cancels itself, leaving only a "least discordant remainder."

Complexity and self-organization theory provide a breakthrough understanding of such self-organizing processes but again we have run with the breakthrough, forgetting the underlying insight. A whirlpool is not a self-organizing-thing, because it's not a self-thing and it's not, as complexity theory suggests a process, that gravitates toward an attractor-thing.

The key in all of these cases, argues Deacon is to pay attention to the "constraint dynamics" that produce these differences between what remains present what becomes absent. Heating a pizza is "constraint dissipation," the equalization of differences. The formation of a whirlpool is "constraint propagation," the compounding growth of differences, as the more turbulence cancel each other, the less discordant the remainder, which cancels even more turbulence.

Life is a different kind of constraint dynamic in which constraints constraint, maintain and preserve themselves. Deacon shows step by careful step how with life real selves emerge, not as things but as constraint begetting dynamics, producing from its origins, lineages that in self-regeneration, impose new constraints upon their environments.

And in the process Deacon's approach provides a backdoor solution to the problem of free will. It's not how life becomes unconstrained, but how it becomes the source of novel constraint, acting in novel upon the world as it does in us humans especially, but to some extent in all adaptive traits, organisms and lineages.

The burden is on scientists to show in strictly classical physical terms how informational, intentional behavior emerges from energetic behavior, not at the origins of the universe, not at the origin of the human mind, not at the origin of sentient organisms, but at the origin of life. At the origin, differences between what remains present and what becomes absent become constrained in new ways, constraints that create, preserve and maintain themselves, in ways Deacon explains.

Embracing the full implications of the underlying insight that with life there is a change in how differences happen, Incomplete Nature provides a clear step-by-step description of how intentional dynamics really emerge from physical dynamics--how informational dynamics really emerge from energetic dynamics.

Deacon's approach offers an unprecedentedly comprehensive attempt at a physical science of all informational, intentional and meaningful behavior, a theory of everything" that "does not make it absurd that we exist," a theory that might complete our incomplete theories of consciousness by naturalizing in physic science the incompleteness we experience in life's infinitely innovative capacity to produce Darwin's 'endless forms most beautiful.'

In the past century, quantum physics and general relativity expanded physics in two directions, shrinking the status of classical physics to that of a special case operative under special conditions. Deacon's approach suggests that by understanding the physics of intention, the kind of work we living creatures do, we may be on the verge of a third expansion, a physical science of mattering that expands our scientific accounts of what is physically possible to encompass what has heretofore only been physically familiar.

Imagine the consequences for science and society of having a physical explanation for functional, meaningful and conscious behavior no less scientific and accessible than our explanation for lightning. I believe Deacon provides just that.
110 of 137 people found the following review helpful
Mind Did Not Not Emerge Dec 28 2011
By Sevens - Published on Amazon.com
Format: Hardcover Verified Purchase
The author talks about - and to some degree - explores self-organization/morphodynamics; he outlines how systems that are (then) far from equilibrium can spontaneously "create themselves" (not a quote). Ever more complex systems pave the way to, are substrates for and mark steps toward life (and mind). Biological cells are pretty complex. To create them, self-sustaining (autocatalytic) systems (constituted by chemical processes) are necessary which need to progress to autogen(ic) status; autogenic status is characterized by the ability of the system (cell) to repair itself and to replicate itself. Essentially, in order to reach the complexity required for life, (gradual) progress has to be made. Each increase in complexity, each increase in sophistication of systems needs to be protected so that it can be build upon. Very much simplified: imagine a self-assembling sandcastle that needs to protect itself against the onslaught of mindless children who are out to destroy it. Mr. Deacon offers concepts for how that could work (not for sandcastles).

However, while he discusses all sorts of things (prominently: complexity theory, self-organization/morphodynamics, thermodynamics, teleodynamics, intentional/ententional [the latter a term he creates] phenomena, information theory and emergence) it does not converge into progress. At least not to me.

Ententional phenomena (elements that are not directly physically represented, such as purpose and thoughts) seem to be what he assigned a fundamental role to. But a focus on that theme is only present in the book's first half and does not amount to a conclusion, to a new insight, to something to work with.

The focus then shifts to constraints. Constraints prevent things. They cause things to not happen, they cause them to remain absent and to only be what (otherwise) could have been. Incidentally they cause/allow for other, alternative things to happen. (Naturally, they play a role in organization/morphodynamics.) I have a feeling that this doesn't sound like much of a great insight. It wasn't to me. I don't see what can - in respect to the emergence of mind/consciousness - be gained through that, allegedly new, perspective. For one thing, constraints are physically there. They aren't absent/absential features. For another thing, defining things negatively (a banana is a fruit that is not any fruit other than a banana) is not a new invention. I do not see anything resembling the paradigm shift and revolution Mr. Deacon postulates (and the publisher advertises).

In my view, this book doesn't revolutionize the concept of emergence; nor does it revolutionize (or particularly further) the understanding of the human mind. It enlightens few things. But it was interesting to read since it addresses interesting topics (of course that's a subjective assessment -- the second paragraph provides a short list, the first paragraph a minimally detailed example). The author's language could be called convoluted. Nonetheless, he remains modest. His insistence on having outlined something astounding is strange. There's a - let's say small - chance that somewhere in his text an idea is encoded and encapsulated that I could not access with my breadth and level of knowledge. In consequence, I plan to read his previous book (The Symbolic Species: The Co-evolution of Language and the Brain) and, through different authors, to further explore the topics he addresses. The impressions described here are based on having read the full book and are strong enough to warrant a review; I will modify and mark it should I arrive at a new/improved understanding. Criticism is welcome.
97 of 127 people found the following review helpful
Sermon or Argument? Nov. 22 2011
By Lew Mills - Published on Amazon.com
Format: Kindle Edition Verified Purchase
Let's start with my confession: I don't think I get it. So, I could be wrong about this. Now, here's my problem with this book.

I can't tell whether it is an argument or a sermon. As a sermon, it works! Pretty much. It gives you that feeling like "sitting in church, being touched by the sense of something enormous and enigmatic, much larger than yourself." And even if you can't follow all of the citations / scripture that have been recited, it moves you to appreciate something you might not otherwise come around to feel.

But as an argument, it is tough going. Deacon's explanations run through one highly abstract notion to another at reckless speeds. Swooping between evolutionary biology and quantum physics in a few paragraphs, and then back, and then into 19th century philosophy for cover, leaves the reader in a vertiginous delirium. Like a great church service, it feels expansive and uplifting. But has it explained something?

I started out to read this, "just far enough to see if he was making sense." At one third of the way through, I still couldn't tell where it was going. It sort of did make sense, but I decided to bail out for this reason: I didn't think that this style of argument was going to lead to answers that I was interested in. Following his logical path through a dozen twists and turns, all at a dangerously ethereal level of abstraction, was going to leave me with little confidence about where I finally arrived. There were no anchors where I could say, "OK, I'm with you so far, because this makes sense to me." I was just being enjoined to hike along his logic trail for a few more miles before I would see promised sights.

I might come back and finish the book. It was a dazzling voyage. But I want to leave the reader of this review with an alternative, which I think covers nearly the same territory: It's Gregory Bateson's "Mind and Nature." I think the style of that book teaches more, while being less didactic. Also a terrific sermon, Bateson's book really does have all of the pieces in it to arrive to see the sights it promises, with many spectacular views along the way.

Meh? I could be wrong.
27 of 34 people found the following review helpful
Mind did not emerge either June 3 2012
By James W. - Published on Amazon.com
Format: Hardcover Verified Purchase
I was excited about the book because it appeared to be one of those books yet to appear, doing three things: carefully laying out the grand challenge (how do we understand the division between living and non-living matters, each with and without meaning, values, and purpose, in terms of known laws of physics and chemistry?), solves the underlying problem on the fundamental level, and look at the consequences and ramifications in terms of our understanding of biological evolution, consciousness, ethics, etc. Schneider and Sagan's 'Into the Cool' is an example of an attempt, in which I think the authors have the very plausible central idea but bungled in the execution.

My enthusiasm waned as I progressed over the chapters, but I did persevere till the end. I have to agree with another reviewer that his writing style is convoluted. Earlier chapters 1-9 are Okay and you may like some of them if you are unfamiliar with the subject matter. An important point is that contrary to common beliefs, Darwinian explanation of natural selection does not solve the problem of what life is, because why organisms strive for survival and reproduction is not clear. Classifying natural processes into homeodynamic (non-organizing), morphodynamic (self-organizing), and teleodynamic (living) ones seems to be a promising idea, if the criteria can be made precise in physical and thermodynamic sense. Morphodynamics involve Benard convection-like emergence of patterns, a reasonable distinction because many well-studied examples of such self-organization now exist. What makes teleodynamic ones different is the central question, which should also explain the emergence of 'values.'

This proposal eventually comes in chapter 10: basically the idea is that it is through a symbiosis of autocatalysis and self-assembly. Autocatalysis amplifies production of chemical species but is transient because of diffusion. Self-assembly can provide containment (think "cell walls") but requires supply of building blocks. They complement each other to form 'autogens.' Whether this is really possible needs to be judged based on physics and chemistry; the author is scant on details: is there a model system of autocatalysis of relevance in metabolism/biochemistry that produces polymeric building blocks? Can one build a proper thermodynamic/kinetic model demonstrating the symbiosis? More importantly, however, the question of how this proposal explains the emergence of values is not made clear. I tried hard to figure out what exactly was being proposed regarding this question in the subsection "The emergence of teleodynamics" of Chapter 10, but all I could suspect was something like this: the two agents of symbiosis do things "for" the other agent. It is this emergence of end-directed nature that we should trace the origin of values to. Please let me know if anyone can do better that I did figuring out what the author is trying to say here. I couldn't help thinking he did not nail this down in his mind either and was just trying to gloss over with long convoluted writings and discussions.

The rest of the book of course hinges on how well this crucial argument has been delivered and bolstered, and needless to say I was disappointed, but the writing style (reminiscent of essays written with length requirements to be fulfilled) didn't help either. I agree with another reviewer that the book reads like sermons, not persuasive arguments. There was only one part I recognized with factual inaccuracy though. He criticizes the gene-centric view and the RNA world theory (the section "The replicator's new clothes") first by replacing RNA with DNA, and then argues RNA sequences without proteins do not constitute information. RNA/DNA are copied by polymerases (not PCR machines), which are normally proteins, but certain RNA sequences can fold and act as polymerases. These RNA sequences are "about" replicating just as modern polymerase genes are, and therefore constitute information. DNAs do not fold so needs to be 'compiled' by mRNA and ribosome into proteins, so they likely evolved as a more stable system of record that requires an overhead. Guess what the compiler (ribosome) is made of: RNAs, because they had to make first proteins when proteins didn't exist yet.
30 of 39 people found the following review helpful
Illuminating Discussion of Emergent Dynamics Jan. 20 2012
By Edward J. Steffes - Published on Amazon.com
Format: Hardcover Verified Purchase
I believe this book has the potential to change--and perhaps revolutionize--scientific thinking in a great many areas. Deacon presents a theory of "emergent dynamics" to explain how the emergence of higher-level processes from simpler physical processes changes causal dynamics in surprising and dramatic ways. His main objective is to show that "ententional" phenomena (function, information, meaning, reference, representation, agency, purpose, sentience, and value) have a legitimate place in scientific explanation once they are properly understood. Accomplishing that would overcome an enormous divide in modern thought since Descartes, with physical scientists tending to eliminate or marginalize these phenomena because they can't fit them into their mechanistic models, and more phenomenological thinkers insisting on them as essential aspects of our human experience, although not being able to explain how they can exist in a material world. In the course of presenting his solution to that problem, Deacon makes major contributions to the understanding of causality, emergence, organisms, evolution, work, information, emotion, and consciousness.

Fundamental to Deacon's argument is a distinction between "orthograde" changes, which occur spontaneously without external interference, and "contragrade" changes, which must be extrinsically forced. Contragrade changes correspond to Aristotle's efficient causality, the usual causality assumed in mechanistic explanation. Such explanation tends to overlook orthograde change and the more subtle formal and/or final causality it involves. Deacon understands form as a constraint on the possible states of a system, a definition that avoids both extreme realism (general forms existing prior to particulars, as in Platonism) and extreme nominalism (forms existing only in the minds of observers). Defined as constraint, form refers in a way to what isn't physically present, and yet what has definite causal consequences. Final causality is the ability of a synergistic system of forms to become its own cause by perpetuating itself.

Deacon distinguishes three levels of dynamic process, each with its own orthograde tendency. A "homeodynamic" process spontaneously reduces a system's constraints to their minimum, as exemplified by the increase in entropy described by the second law of thermodynamics. Although a large number of objects interacting in a system exert efficient causality on one another, an increase in entropy arises from the statistical form of the system as a whole, in which disordered macro-states far outnumber ordered states; in that sense the homeodynamic process exhibits formal causality.

When systems in different thermodynamic states encounter each other, they exert a contragrade influence, as when a hotter system encounters a colder one, so that each is moved away from the equilibrium it otherwise would have had. The second level of dynamic process, "morphodynamic," emerges when the flow of "energy" across such a gradient is constrained so as to generate order; it is a process of form generating more form. The crystalline form of a falling snowflake places constraint on where additional molecules will form when it freezes some of the water molecules it encounters in the air, so its form generates more form over its unique interactional history. Surprisingly then, a higher-level order-building process emerges out of the lower-level tendency toward thermodynamic equilibrium, one illustration of how emergence transforms causal dynamics. Morphodynamic processes occur only rarely and fleetingly in the inorganic world, but they are essential to the organic world. They rely on the thermodynamic foundation of radiation from the Sun to the Earth, constrained and put to the work of building bodies.

Organisms depend on a number of morphodynamic, order-building processes, each inducing contragrade changes in others, but in a synergistic way. One process creates a condition favorable to another, so that it can continue rather than wind down by destroying the conditions that gave rise to it. A self-assembly process similar to crystal formation can build a cellular wall, providing a protected space for an autocatalytic process that creates many molecules of the same kind, providing a continued supply of material for self-assembly. This kind of synergy generates Deacon's third level of dynamic process, called "teleodynamic" or end-directed, in which the system's orthograde tendency is to perpetuate itself by sustaining its closely coordinated morphodynamic processes. This gives organisms a kind of closure from external processes, creating a distinct self, able to act on its own behalf in its environment in order to sustain itself.

Purely bottom-up explanation, trying to find the causes of the organism's behavior at lower levels, will be insufficient here. The lower-level physiological details can vary greatly, as long as the macro-level constraints are perpetuated. And the component processes are affected by the synergistic relationships in which they participate, so they can't be understood simply as independent causes. This is also relevant to the understanding of genetic information, whose meaning is not intrinsic but dependent on the teleodynamic context in which it is used. That's part of the problem of seeing the organism as a machine running a genetic "program."

In animals with brains, a second-order self can emerge, which we call "consciousness". This is a more specialized teleodynamic process contributing to the more general teleodynamics of the organism. Like any teleodynamic process, it is thermodynamically driven (it takes energy to feel and think) and emergent from morphodynamic synergies (interdependencies among order-generating processes within the vast neural network of the brain). And like any teleodynamic process, it is inherently self-sustaining. But what does it do for the body? Deacon describes it as a representational process that interprets the organisms's own teleodynamic tendency. I take that to mean that this process maintains a normative model of what the animal is trying to do, allowing it to anticipate opportunities and threats rather than just reacting to them. At the risk of putting words in Deacon's mouth, I would conclude that it is purposive in a double sense, having its own purpose of sustaining itself so that it can give purpose (direction) to the organism as it tries to sustain itself. Like any teleodynamic process, it performs work on what is "other" to itself, but in this case what is other includes other processes within the same body. Deacon makes the intriguing suggestion that the work done to mobilize the body to respond to favorable or unfavorable contingencies is experienced as emotion.

This perspective leads more naturally than any other I'm aware of to an understanding of human beings as thinking, feeling, and active free agents. But as Deacon says, freedom has to be understood not as freedom from causality, but freedom to exercise causal power, including some power over ourselves!

Obviously Deacon takes a dim view of cognitive science and neuroscience models that reduce thought to mechanical computation or relegate consciousness to the role of passive spectator to the brain's bottom-up causal activity. Mind isn't a ghostly immaterial entity existing beyond causality, but neither is it causally epiphenomenal (inconsequential). It is a dynamic process that evolved because of its function in sustaining and coordinating bodily activity in a very subtle way, through the perpetuation of constraint. Since mechanistic models only consider the extrinsic force exerted on one part by another in a deterministic system, they overlook the spontaneous propagation and self-persistence of constraints that organize our world while leaving it open to further organization.

I do have one reservation about Deacon's position, and that is that I'm not as sure as he is that teleodynamic process was absent for most of the universe's history. His description of teleodynamics reminded me of physicist David Bohm's concept of reciprocal causation, which he intends as a universal principle. I understand why Deacon wants to limit the discussion to living things, and I find his account of teleodynamics there persuasive, but perhaps he closes the door a little too firmly against the possibility of a self-sustaining process on a deeper level. I wonder what Aristotle would make of that.

Overall, I recommend this book very highly and hope that it will be widely read. Anyone who wants to think about human beings scientifically without reducing them to robots (or "golems") will benefit from it. In the Machine Age, we modeled our relationship to nature as a relationship of "man to machine," which ultimately forced us to regard ourselves as machines in order to include ourselves in nature. So the model became machinery controlled by machinery, with no place for consciousness, purpose, feeling or value. Now it's time to recover our respect for nature's purposes, as well as our own self-respect. As Deacon ends the book, "Even as our scientific tools have given us mastery over so much of the physical world around and within us, they have at the same time alienated us from these same realms. It is time to find our way home."


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