Motivation for the Book This book aims to describe a comprehensive methodology for service-oriented inf- mation systems planning, considered in particular, in eGovernment initiatives. The methodology is based on the research results produced by the Italian project "eG- ernment for Mediterranean Countries (eG4M)," granted by the Italian Ministry of University and Research from 2005 to 2008. The concept of service is at the center of the book. The methodology is focused on quality of services as a key factor for eGovernment initiatives. Since its grou- ing is in a project whose goal has been to develop a methodology for eGove- ment in Mediterranean countries it is called eG4M. Furthermore, eG4M aims at encompassing the relationships existing between ICT technologies and social c- texts of service provision, organizational issues, and juridical framework, looking at ICT technologies more as a means than an end. eG4M satis es a real need of constituencies and stakeholders involved in eGovernment projects, con rmed in the eG4M experimentations and in previous preliminary experiences in the Italian P- lic Administrations. A structured process is needed that provides a clear perspective on the different facets that eGovernment initiatives usually have to challenge and disciplines the complex set of decisions to be taken. The available approaches to eGovernment usually provide only one perspective to public managers and local authorities on the domain of intervention, either te- nological, organizational, legal, economic, or social.