The International Space Station (ISS) celebrated 10 years of operations in November 2008. Today, it is more than a human outpost in low Earth orbit (LEO). It is also an international science laboratory hosting state-of-the-art scientific facilities that support fundamental and applied research across the range of physical and biological sciences. This book focuses on the experimental results collected to date, including scientific publications from studies that are based on operational data. NASA's priorities for research aboard the ISS centre on understanding human health during long-duration missions, research on new understandings, methods, or applications that are relevant to life on Earth, such as effective protocols against loss of bone density or producing stronger metal alloys.