It took 15 years of negotiations to integrate China into the World Trade Organization. This book argues that redistributive conflicts between China and old WTO members delayed the accession negotiations and fostered protectionist resentments against China as a new member. An explorative case study illustrates the emergence of third-market competition as a motive for members not to enlarge the organization since it contests the profits of their exporting industries. The econometric analysis of industry-specific antidumping measures on imports from China reveals that members' import-competing industries also seek protection. As a result, one reason why China was not warmly welcomed to the WTO by a heterogeneous group of countries is, ironically, its trading power.