Maritime piracy provides unique challenges for nations that are attempting to combat it. In the 1990s, Southeast Asia was the world’s number one region for piracy attacks on maritime vessels, but that statistic has since improved. In the new millennium, the Horn of Africa has eclipsed Southeast Asia to become the top region for pirate attacks. State failure in Somalia, coupled with regional economic and political weakness, has allowed piracy to thrive. Since late 2008, an international response that consists of maritime forces from around the world has been assisting the shipping industry by providing security. Thus far, this effort has had mixed success. As the rate of successful attacks has decreased, the frequency at which they occur has continued to increase. This thesis investigates the rise and fall of piracy in Southeast Asia, and compares causal factors and responses to piracy in the Horn of Africa. The purpose is to provide an analysis of lessons learned that could be applied in the Horn of Africa.