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Reckless Endangerment: How Outsized Ambition, Greed, and Corruption Led to Economic Armageddon [Hardcover]

Gretchen Morgenson , Joshua Rosner
4.7 out of 5 stars  See all reviews (3 customer reviews)
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Book Description

May 24 2011

A Washington Post Notable Nonfiction Book for 2011
One of The Economist’s 2011 Books of the Year

The New York Times's Pulitzer Prize-winning columnist reveals how the financial meltdown emerged from the toxic interplay of Washington, Wall Street, and corrupt mortgage lenders

In Reckless Endangerment, Gretchen Morgenson, the star business columnist of The New York Times, exposes how the watchdogs who were supposed to protect the country from financial harm were actually complicit in the actions that finally blew up the American economy.

Drawing on previously untapped sources and building on original research from coauthor Joshua Rosner—who himself raised early warnings with the public and investors, and kept detailed records—Morgenson connects the dots that led to this fiasco.

Morgenson and Rosner draw back the curtain on Fannie Mae, the mortgage-finance giant that grew, with the support of the Clinton administration, through the 1990s, becoming a major opponent of government oversight even as it was benefiting from public subsidies. They expose the role played not only by Fannie Mae executives but also by enablers at Countrywide Financial, Goldman Sachs, the Federal Reserve, HUD, Congress, the FDIC, and the biggest players on Wall Street, to show how greed, aggression, and fear led countless officials to ignore warning signs of an imminent disaster.

Character-rich and definitive in its analysis, this is the one account of the financial crisis you must read.


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From Publishers Weekly

Robards ( Tiger's Eye ) here transposes the tale of Cinderella to a cotton plantation in the antebellum South. Wicked, sexy Celia is cruel to Jessie, the spirited, late-blooming daughter of her deceased husband. The unlikely prince is Clive, a former riverboat gambler who marries Celia to gain control of her property. It is he who sees past Jessie's self-hatred to her inner beauty and who summons her deepest longings. Robards so effectively entangles the trio in plot complications that, ultimately, she must introduce a murder in order to clear a path for her so-called happy ending. Despite Robards's pains to legitimate the ardor between a young woman and her stepmother's husband, the unsavoriness of this theme is aggravated by protracted descriptions of Clive's drunken defloration of Jessie and his subsequent attempts to teach her the art of lovemaking.
Copyright 1989 Reed Business Information, Inc. --This text refers to an out of print or unavailable edition of this title.

Review

"Gretchen Morgenson is a national treasure. Year after year, she has dragged Wall Street miscreants out of the shadows, exposing their dirty secrets to the public that they bamboozled with schemes and deceits. Now, working with Joshua Rosner, she has trained her expert eye on the mortgage mess that pushed the American economy to the brink. In stunning detail, Morgenson exposes the truth behind the worst financial calamity of modern times, weaving a tale that is as mesmerizing as it is horrifying. Reckless Endangerment names the names and reveals the secrets of the plutocrats and politicians whose greed and recklessness threatened the foundations of capitalism.  It is essential reading for anyone struggling to understand how America entered the new era of financial chaos."—Kurt Eichenwald, New York Times bestselling author of Conspiracy of Fools and The Informant

"Even before Reckless Endangerment, Gretchen Morgenson was my nominee for Reporter of the Decade for her forensic and prophetic coverage of Wall Street. Now, she and the equally talented sleuth Joshua Rosner, like Holmes and Dr. Watson, have pieced together the clues to a seminal mystery of the financial debacle: how American taxpayers were suckered by the shenanigans, greed, egos, back scratching, and guile of financial and political elites who swarmed like vultures around Fannie Mae, picking it clean of oversight and accountability while its executives gorged themselves on the spoils. Naming names and taking no prisoners, they drill deep into one of the most disturbing scandals of our time, perpetrated in the name of helping "the little guy."  Read it and weep. Read it and vow: Never Again!—Bill Moyers, journalist, and President, Schumann Media Center

"Morgenson and Rosner have written the long-awaited volume that gets to the heart of the mortgage crisis. The fearlessness and breadth of reporting make the book as compellingly readable as it is exhaustive. Reckless Endangerment is a remarkable achievement—and should be required reading for all Americans."—Bryan Burrough, Vanity Fair special correspondent and bestselling author of Barbarians at the Gate and The Big Rich

"Gretchen Morgenson and Josh Rosner show us how, over the last fifteen years, the mortgage lending industry used money and political influence to escape regulation, enrich itself, and create a catastrophe.  Particularly in its dissection of Fannie Mae, Freddie Mac, and their enablers, this book is unmatched in its depth and invaluable to anyone interested in the causes and lessons of the financial crisis."—Charles Ferguson, Academy award-winning director of Inside Job

"A chilling account of the reckless disregard for ethical or civilized values at the heart of our financial system.  If this compelling history does not completely turn your stomach, that's good - because by bailing out these individuals, their attitudes, and their way of life, we have set ourselves up for another nauseating turn of the Financial Wheel."—Simon Johnson, co-author of 13 Bankers: The Wall Street Takeover and The Next Financial Meltdown


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Customer Reviews

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15 of 16 people found the following review helpful
5.0 out of 5 stars Greed leads to collapse July 14 2011
By Len TOP 100 REVIEWER
Format:Hardcover
Putting the cookie monster in charge of the cookie jar would seem like a bad idea. Putting men whose goal is making money in charge of monitoring how they make that money is also a bad idea. Yet, that is exactly what Bill Clinton and the two legislative houses did when they put an end to the Glass-Steagall Act in 1999. The Act had been legislated in 1933 to separate depository banks from investment banks so that banks where the ordinary citizen was depositing his paycheque could gamble that money on investment. The ideological assumption behind the move was that investment bankers would be smart enough to protect their interests and so, the interests of the bank, in a manner that would not put their bank in jeopardy of collapse. The problem that arose in 2007 and then into 2008 was that these private financial institutions had become too big because if they failed, so would the U.S. economy. A concurrent problem that arose at this time was the U.S. government support of the two largest mortgage holding companies, Freddie Mac and Fannie Mae. Banks and corporations holding these mortgages believed that whatever the circumstances, the federal government would back them, which is fine if we are talking about loans made to people who can afford to repay them. Historically, mortgages have been pretty safe investments because homeowners have put a lot of investment in their home and those homes have risen in price with time. Then came the idea of the subprime mortgage that was offered to lower middle-income families who previously couldn't afford a home. This would allow them to use what they had previously used as rent toward a home without having to put a substantial down-payment on the house. Read more ›
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2 of 2 people found the following review helpful
4.0 out of 5 stars JUST PART OF THE STORY Dec 5 2012
Format:Hardcover|Verified Purchase
Although this book is well researched and well written by the co-authors, it really only tells part of the story of the 2008 global economic meltdown. This book really is about Fannie Mae, the US mortgage lender and its rapacious CEO James A Johnson. Events on Wall Street by major banks that led to the the economic crisis that spread around the world are not covered. Perhaps this was not Gretchen Morgenson and Joshua Rosner's intention. But it is somewhat disappointing that their focus stubbornly stays on Fannie Mae, and to a lesser degree, Freddie Mac.
It really needs to be noted that since 2008, 386 banks have failed in the USA. The banking system, unhinged with the end of the Glass-Steagal Banking regulation by President Clinton which kept American depositors and investors safe from greedy bankers for decades, has not been fixed. Those responsible for this chaos which destroyed the lives of hundreds of thousands of people have not been brought to court. The authors and this reader find this incomprehensible but at least they have named names.
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5.0 out of 5 stars Ouch!!! This is a must read Jan. 17 2014
Format:Paperback|Verified Purchase
I really try not to be a conspiracy theorist, but after reading this book it is hard not to be. You will be appalled at the cynical way in which politicians, the Federal Reserve, Wall Street, and downright crooks from Main Street used sub-prime mortgage lending to bring down taxpayers, investors and indeed the poor and disadvantaged. The book points out how the agenda of these culprits worked to create a horrific global economic crises. What will really hurt is to see that very little has changed. None of the "bad guys' lost their houses or livelihoods and the politicians just let the scandal slide right off of them. The book is very well written and entertaining. It would be nice if there were better use of references - however. But it is journalistic in nature, so I suppose anonymity is required. I have researched some of the frightening assertions made in the book on my own and have always found that what the authors say is SADLY quite true. Yet a further cautionary tale that Wall Street is very much stacked against the small investor.
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Amazon.com: 4.3 out of 5 stars  269 reviews
540 of 569 people found the following review helpful
5.0 out of 5 stars We need more watchdogs like Gretchen and Josh! May 24 2011
By Srikumar S. Rao - Published on Amazon.com
Format:Hardcover|Verified Purchase
I have long admired Gretchen Morgenson and cheered when she was awarded a Pulitzer. Perhaps this book in conjunction with her hard-hitting NY Times reporting will garner her another one. She deserves it. The authors echo my sentiments precisely in their introduction "...felt compelled to write this book because we are angry that the American economy was almost wrecked by a crowd of self-interested, politically influential and arrogant people who have not been held accountable for their actions." And the people who did it "...continue, even now, to hold sway in the corridors of Wall Street and Washington."

I have nothing against the vastly wealthy and sometimes - OK, frequently - dream wistfully of joining their ranks, but I do care about how this wealth is accumulated. Entrepreneurs who build companies, executives who take these companies to the next level and the one after that, highly talented and gifted persons - in arts and sports - who command premium remuneration all enrich society. Many financial titans, on the other hand, do not create wealth. They are unusually adept in extracting it for personal gain while simultaneously impoverishing society and holding it hostage. They operate on the principle that "My gain is mine and only mine. My loss is actually yours." And they know how to spread enough largesse that enablers like accountants, rating agencies and regulators fall into line and they buy off politicians with consummate skill. They try - increasingly ineffectively - to justify their existence by claiming that they perform crucial service by "allocating capital" and "increasing efficiency." They further claim that they should not be regulated because they can do a better job of regulating themselves. The fish is starting to stink pretty bad.

What makes this book a valuable read is that the authors explain exactly how this process works and they are not shy about naming names. For example, you learn how James Johnson, the erstwhile CEO of Fannie Mae built it into a colossus that gradually jettisoned all prudence in lending and vastly enriched himself and a bunch of cronies. He also suborned powerful legislators like Barney Frank, the powerful Massachusetts Democrat. And, lastly, he looked on and encouraged Wall Street firms to do the same and used that as justification to increase the scale of his own operations. And, Oh! I almost forgot, he also admonished fresh graduates to pursue their careers with "honesty and integrity". When Johnson left Fannie Mae, a senior executive recalled "...we always won, we took no prisoners and we faced little organized political opposition." He continued to be politically influential and was an adviser to the current president until forced to resign because it surfaced that he had received sweetheart loans from a leading purveyor of toxic financial junk.

Did you ever feel that "You scratch my back and I'll scratch yours" is the norm on Wall Street? Consider this: Stephen Friedman, former CEO of Goldman Sachs was a director of Fannie Mae when the directors improperly allowed company executives to set earnings targets that they could meet. Federal investigators concluded that "As a direct result, senior management reaped ongoing and extensive financial rewards through accounting manipulation." Johnson was then inducted to the board of Goldman Sachs - when Hank Paulson became CEO - and promptly made chair of the compensation committee. He dispensed some of the richest paychecks on Wall Street and these became the norm as other firms played catch-up. In fact, Johnson chaired the compensation committees of every board he sat on.

Angelo Mozilo, founder and CEO of Countrywide, was a good friend of Johnson's and used his methods to grow the cancer that was Countrywide. The company made it a policy to give sweetheart loans to persons in power - these VIP loans were informally known as Friends of Angelo loans. Richard Holbrooke got such a loan. So did Senators Chris Dodd, Kent Conrad and Barbara Boxer. So did Donna Shalala, former head of Health and Human Services and Alfonso Jackson, secretary of HUD. And Countrywide hired sons and daughters and relatives of the influential and made sure that they were not fired during mass layoffs. Do you think it is possible, just barely possible, that these policies are what enabled that tumor to grow so large without surgery even being considered?

There were people who tried to stem the disastrous tide such as Mark Kohodes the money manager who shared damaging information about NovaStar - a Countrywide clone - with the SEC to no avail. And Armando Falcon, the regulator who tried to rein in Fannie Mae and was bludgeoned for his pains. And William Brennan of the Atlanta Legal Aid who drafted tough anti-predatory-lending legislation and then had it go nowhere.

This book will make you well informed. It will also make you sad because not much has changed in the system and the same players are still active. Can someone please tell me why we "respect" these CEOs instead of crossing the street when we see them coming our way?
219 of 230 people found the following review helpful
4.0 out of 5 stars Lapdogs as watchdogs, pols in the pocket and giddyup greed!!! May 25 2011
By Laurence R. Bachmann - Published on Amazon.com
Format:Hardcover
Reckless Endangerment chronicles the screwing of America by just about everyone in power: dirty politicians, inept watchdogs and an insatiably avaricious financial community that knew better but didn't care. NY Times reporters Gretchen Morgenson and Joshua Rosner have taken the time to investigate not just players in the financial mess circa 2008 but the 15 years prior when Bill Clinton decided to get behind the dubious notion that everyone should have a stake in the American dream and own their own home.

In theory it all sounded perfect--who could object to people bettering themselves? The only problem was that to make the dream "accessible to all" generations of lending practices and protections would have to be dismantled. Safeguards would be gutted and due diligence would become a nuisance that is brushed aside. There are plenty of culprits here: the usual Wall Street money-mongers and in the 90s and early 00s a Republican Congress in their pocket. But Morgenson and Posner shine a powerfully bright light on the complicity of marquee Democrats such as Bill Clinton, Christopher Dodd and Barney Frank. Toss in Democrat insider Jim Johnson into the cauldron and it is a powerful witches brew.

Jim Johnson, quintessential DC insider used all of these connections in the 90s on behalf of empowering Fannie Mae and eviscerating sound financial practices. Greasing the wheels of powerful polls on banking and finance committees became standard procedure. Finding a sinecure for Barney Frank's boyfriend was a pleasure not a problem (if Frank isn't a criminal it is by a hair's breadth). Libeling the responsible, honest regulators and economists who tried to stop this train-wreck waiting to happen was all in a day's work, and a particular Johnson specialty. Edward DeMarco, Gary Gensler and Marvin Phaups are particularly heroic. When the occasional curious congressman tried to uncover Fannie Mae compensation packages, Johnson squashed them as well, more powerful than our own elected officials.

Sadly, all of the corruption above pales in comparison to Chris Dodd's attachment of an amendment that extended government protection to financial agency's other than bank (Fannie Mae, insurance companies, et al) As a result, we not only get to save Fannie and Freddie--we get to pay the legal bills of everyone who is being sued because of their reckless behavior. What did Chris Dodd get? Maximum campaign contributions and a sweetheart mortgage, naturally.

Today, who is getting the blame? The poor of course. The people who shouldn't EVER have qualified for a loan but could get one are now told they should have known better! Better than bankers who told them they could? Better than Wall Street regulators who told them they should? Better than Secretaries of the Treasury who told them they were fools not to? Today they are buried in bankruptcy or mountains of debt. Middle class Americans are paying the bill and the money class who created the mess are still meeting at Davos or presiding over their conservative and liberal think tanks.

If I have one criticism of the book it is with regards to full disclosure. While trawling the NY Times web site I learned that Gretchen Morgenson was once an employee of Steve Forbes and a campaign manager during his run for the presidency based in large part as a proponent of a flat-tax. Nothing wrong with that except Fannie Mae took the flat tax proposal as a threat and went after Forbes big time in New Hampshire. Their attack ads, which Morgenson presents as detrimental to the campaign were also detrimental to her self-interest at the time. This should have been revealed before chapter 1. Perhaps it means nothing but if we are critical of Fannie Mae for its lack of transparency, what about Morgenson?

Toward the end of the book I was incredibly depressed. It is one thing to be so royally screwed, but surely we have learned lessons from it and will prevent it happening again, right? Wrong. Morgenson and Posner make it crystal clear that pretty much the same financial system that was in place 5 years ago is still in place today. The 2009 revisions to regulations are about as dependable as New Orlean's levees. Massive bank failures in the 80s were followed by financial crisis and collapse in '08. Collective memory seems to be shortest of all and already fading. How sad and frustrating.

P.T. Barnum was wrong. In America today it seems there is a sucker born every second.
158 of 173 people found the following review helpful
5.0 out of 5 stars Finally someone gets it! May 25 2011
By Raven26 - Published on Amazon.com
Format:Hardcover
Morgenson and Rosner have done their homework and written an in depth and hard-hitting book that reveals with perfect clarity how this mess began. It's refreshing to read a book that doesn't rehash the Wall Street stories we've all heard over and over. I'm much more interested at this point in the characters in Washington who were championing home ownership and enriching themselves as they set the stage for disaster, and who really have remained blameless up to now. The sense of outrage the authors feel comes through on every page and the book is actually a page-turner in addition to being a real narrative, unlike some of the other books on the crisis, with a beginning and an end. Great storytelling and great reporting as well. Read it!!!
69 of 74 people found the following review helpful
5.0 out of 5 stars "ATTENTION MUST BE PAID" June 4 2011
By citizen fact checker - Published on Amazon.com
Format:Hardcover|Verified Purchase
In many ways this is a well-written, informative and thought-provoking book. Despite the few errors of date and fact that some careful reviewers have noted here, IMO it should be read by every voter, homeowner, renter, investor -- every citizen -- who is determined no longer to be shafted by the powerful -- nor by the lawmakers' staffers who "earn" their money by burying loopholes in our laws such that even the most honest attorney general cannot prosecute perps who enrich themselves while they impoverish gullible voters, tax payers and their families.

There are some excellent reviews posted here, especially those by S. Rao, Raven 26, L. Bachmann, and many, many others, so I will make no effort to repeat their excellent work. I, however, am on my second reading of my hardcover copy of "Reckless." Taking notes this time inasmuch as I state in my title, above, from "Death of a Salesman," ATTENTION MUST BE PAID.

We must no longer be victimized by the powerful and their feckless, reckless, blind-eyed enablers: The true, accurate contents of this book -- despite the few errors that escaped the publisher's fact checkers -- may give you the impetus you need to get you moving.

The perps who brought about this mess while enriching themselves and impoverishing the public should no longer escape public scrutiny. ATTENTION MUST BE PAID!!

P.S. I have no hidden agenda. I do not work for the authors or publisher, or whatever.
66 of 74 people found the following review helpful
5.0 out of 5 stars Excellent Book, Disappointing Revelations about Financial Regulators June 9 2011
By Loyd E. Eskildson - Published on Amazon.com
Format:Hardcover
Americans clearly were robbed of hundreds of billions of dollars as part of the 2008 Great Recession. Several good books have already been published that cover its causes; recently released "Reckless Endangerment" concentrates more on the role of the government, and especially James Johnson, Fannie Mae CEO from 1991-1998.

The 1992 Federal Housing Enterprises Financial Safety and Soundness Act encouraged unsafe and unsound mortgage activities by assigning Fannie and Freddie a new affordable housing mission. The law specified that 30% of housing they financed must go to low/moderate income families, with another 30% to housing in inner cities. (Unclear whether mortgages to low/moderate inner city families count doubly.) Safety and soundness took a backseat to political goals and ideology. Down-payment requirements went first - the 1992 act encouraged buying mortgages with 5% or less down; the percent of Fannie-held loans with a loan-to-value ratio over 90% rose from 6% in 1992 to 19% in 1996. Fannie and Freddy's 'special mission' also provided political cover for growing/maintaining federal support (implicit Federal guarantee --> lower interest rates charged by lenders), and exemption from or weakening of some requirements - supposedly without these it could not meet the new housing goals and remain solvent.

Ratings agencies stopped demanding information on a borrower's debt/income ratio - getting the data delayed decision-making, and not requiring it anymore purportedly made the process 'more objective.' Moody's, S&P, etc. were no longer the cops on the beat they were thought to be.

Lobbying allowed Fannie and Freddie to help determine its new regulator - HUD, then led by Andrew Cuomo, was picked; it was seen as a weak and ineffectual regulator. Capital requirements were set at 2.5%, much lower than the 10% demanded of banks. HUD also 'streamlined' Fannie/Freddie regulations by allowing lenders to hire their own appraisers.

Johnson claimed Fannie saved American homebuyers between $7 - $14 billion in 1996, citing studies it helped fund. Intense lobbying and arm-twisting (eg. by Larry Summers, Robert Rubin) helped defeat Treasury's initial recommendation to sever ties with Freddie/Fannie; however, Johnson et al were not able to bury/change CBO analyses that concluded they had taken advantage of their federal connections to also fund political donations, lobbying, 'sweetheart' loans, and personally enrich management via much higher than warranted salaries - about $2 billion 'down the drain' in this supposedly holy cause.

James Johnson, however, was not the only player working to reduce regulation - ostensibly to better pursue social goals. Glass-Steagall was eviscerated, thanks to Sandy Weill at Citibank, bank capital requirements were reduced overall, asset-stripping (aka 'predatory' lending) was recognized for what it was - yet, allowed to continue, ratings agencies got away with dodging responsibility via claiming their conclusions were only 'opinions,' etc. Most galling, perhaps, was how threats to strip Fannie and Freddie of their special status was defeated by rating agencies' counter-threat to roil markets by downgrading F&F's debt (then $4 trillion, vs. $4.7 in Treasuries).

Meanwhile, Countrywide (a 2-man shop in 1969 L.A.) supplied 26% of Fannie's loans in 2004, espoused similar social benefit spiel, stepped up its own lobbying along the Fannie's lines, and not only eased requirements but also helped create deliberate falsifications. Johnson then brought KBHomes into the action -between KB, Countrywide, and Fannie, the destructive and illusionary pursuit of social-goals had become fully vertically-integrated. Alan Greenspan, reputed economic 'maestro,' continued his 'hear no evil, see no evil' pronouncements - based more on his Ayn Rand derived ideology than careful economic analysis.

'Repo' requirements for defective (eg. 'liar') loans were standard contract requirements that protected buyers in the event of early defaults. However, soon the volume of loans that could be forced back upon sellers overwhelmed the sellers' financial capabilities. Instead, buyers' willingness to acquire new mortgages sagged, and the entire process came to a halt - refinancings and new mortgages alike.

'Reckless Endangerment' ends with the author's vision for the future - a 'rerun,' due to Congress having failed to deal with the 'too big to fail' issue (one idea - increase the reserve requirements demanded of very large banks), followed by short current status summaries of the book's major protagonists. With the partial exception of Mozillo at Countrywide, none had been forced to return their ill-gotten gains and/or overly generous payments, none had even been charged with a crime, one had become governor of a major state (Cuomo - New York), and most were considerably better off for having contributed to the creation of America's 'Great Recession.'

So much for 'Honesty being its own best reward,' and 'Honesty is the best policy.' Meanwhile, back in Washington, proposed regulatory changes (banks issuing mortgages for sale to the securities market must either require a 20% down-payment or retain 5% of each loans value on their books) intended to reduce the threat of another mortgage meltdown ran into opposition from various 'poverty-pimp' groups - despite exempting loans backed by Fannie, Freddie, or the FHA (about 90% of the total).
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