This is an unfortunate book because of its lack of definition about what is meant by "religion," its obvious bias, odd methodology, and incomplete bibliography. Even though its aim appears to be to provide an introduction and helpful bibliography for students (it has no original scholarship of its own), its one-sidedness is only harmful. The title indicates that it is about "Religion in the Age of Shakespeare" but it is not a history-- one chapter provides only an incomplete overview of "religion," by which the author means Protestantism, which he praises, and he inaccurately presents the historical situation (e.g., he speaks glowingly about Elizabeth's "Anglican compromise," which did not exist at the time, but says nothing about state enforced Protestant church attendance, oaths of loyalty, imprisonment, or executions, not to mention the systematic destruction of religious tradition in England.) Catholics get 2 1/2 pages, none of which are about England. Duffy's fine Stripping of the Altars is briefly mentioned in the context of Edward VI but the author doesn't seem to comprehend the book or the historical situation. Three of Robert Southwell's poems are included in the Primary Source section with no explanation as to how they relate to Shakespeare. Southwell is said to have been "executed." Why? One chapter is devoted to scholarship on Shakespeare and religion; the author goes out of his way to mention (one sentence) Milward only to condemn his Catholic approach to Shakespeare (and omits Milward's very fine Shakespeare's Religious Background from his bibliography, along with his Shakespeare the Papest and his many other books (two articles are in the bibliography)). Most other authors who have taken a Catholic approach are excluded, even though there have been one hundred years of scholarship in this area (Bowden, for example, is mention but omitted from the bibliography). Although the author explains that interpretation based on doctrine involves examination of both Catholic and Protestant religous rituals, theology, and religious texts in Shakepeare, he doesn't mention Catholic ritual (Mutschmann and Wentersdorf's Shakespeare and Catholicism (1952) which discusses explicit mention of Catholic ritual in Shakespeare is ignored) or Catholic texts, or Catholic theology. While the author acknowledges that some have investigated patristic authors in Shakespeare, he omits those who have noted parallels between Shakespeare and Aquinas both from his discussion and the bibliography (there have been decades of such investigation, Beauregard is the most recent). Recent work on Shakespeare's biography and Catholic family is also omitted (the Lancastrian Shakespeare does make it into the bibliography but not the text). Sometimes it isn't clear whether distortions are mistakes or deliberate: the author (p.59) says that Shakespeare's father's "will" was "worded as a devotional book" and hidden in the eaves of his house. The document was actually the spirtual testiment of Saint Carlo Borromeo, distributed by Edmund Campion, signed to indicate adherence to Catholicism, and hidden because it was illegal and dangerous in the wake of Campion's 1581 execution (all bibilograpy on this is of course excluded). Since the author dismisses both elements of the supernatural (angels, devils, ghosts, witches etc.) and classicism as "non Christian," he manages (in one sentence!) to condemn all of medieval and Baroque art, medieval drama, and 250 years of Jesuit drama in one sentence. But the author, by concentrating on a Protestant approach to Shakespeare, obviously has a problem. If Protestant "ritual" and theology consists of reading scripture and singing hymns, how can religion in Shakespeare be investigated beyond looking for Biblical quotations (and again, the bibliography is incomplete) or searching for references to morality? And in fact, apparently in order to make his text book-length, a substantial portion of one chapter is devoted to Marxism, Feminism, Freud, and other "ideological" approaches to literary interpretation. What this has to do with religion in the age of Shakespeare is not clear, but if Marxism is included as a religion, why can't Catholics be included, too?