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Symmetry and the Beautiful Universe [Paperback]

Leon M. Lederman , Christopher T. Hill
4.3 out of 5 stars  See all reviews (3 customer reviews)
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Book Description

Nov. 30 2007 1591025753 978-1591025757
When scientists peer through a telescope at the distant stars in outer space or use a particle-accelerator to analyze the smallest components of matter, they discover that the same laws of physics govern the whole universe at all times and all places. Physicists call the eternal, ubiquitous constancy of the laws of physics symmetry. Symmetry is the basic underlying principle that defines the laws of nature and hence controls the universe. This all-important insight is one of the great conceptual breakthroughs in modern physics and is the basis of contemporary efforts to discover a grand unified theory to explain all the laws of physics.

Nobel Laureate Leon M. Lederman and physicist Christopher T. Hill explain the supremely elegant concept of symmetry and all its profound ramifications to life on Earth and the universe at large in this eloquent, accessible popular science book. They not only clearly describe concepts normally reserved only for physicists and mathematicians, but they also instill an appreciation for the profound beauty of the universe’s inherent design.

Central to the story of symmetry is an obscure, unpretentious, but extremely gifted German mathematician named Emmy Noether. Though still little known to the world, she impressed no less a scientist than Albert Einstein, who praised her "penetrating mathematical thinking." In some of her earliest work she proved that the law of the conservation of energy was connected to the idea of symmetry and thus laid the mathematical groundwork for what may be the most important concept of modern physics.

Lederman and Hill reveal concepts about the universe, based on Noether’s work, that are largely unknown to the public and have wide-reaching implications in connection with the Big Bang, Einstein’s theory of relativity, quantum mechanics, and many other areas of physics. Through ingenious analogies and illustrations, they bring these astounding notions to life. This book will open your eyes to a universe you never knew existed.

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Product Description

From Publishers Weekly

The concept of symmetry has seen increasing service in science popularizations as a metaphor to convey the intuitive appeal of physics, a vogue that continues in this dense treatise. Nobel Laureate Lederman (The God Particle) and theoretical physicist Hill deploy mathematical symmetry as a unifying theme in a tour of physics from Newton's laws to quarks and superstrings. Sometimes, as in a demonstration that the invariance of physical laws through time implies the law of conservation of energy, this approach yields insights. But usually, as in their confusing exposition of special relativity, symmetry considerations get in the way. The authors keep things readable with lots of physics-for-poets bits, including some tie-ins to environmentalism, comparisons of modern cosmology with ancient Greek myths, and a fictional dialogue—partly in Italian—between two newlywed physicists and Galileo's ghost. Unfortunately, symmetry is a forbiddingly abstract branch of mathematics that was peripheral to the development of much of physics and gives little tangible feel for its substance, and the point where it becomes indispensable to discussions of modern physics is also the tipping point where the book, like many others, topples into total incomprehensibility to laypeople. Readers who think symmetry implies clarity and grace will be disappointed. Photos.
Copyright © Reed Business Information, a division of Reed Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved. --This text refers to the Hardcover edition.

Review

"A tour de force of physics made simple...."
— Times Literary Supplement 

“Thought-provoking….”
— Discover 

“Few books about modern physics are as fascinating, far-ranging, and readable as this. It would be appreciated by anyone interested in the nature of science and the beauty of the universe…."
NSTA Recommends

"A compelling and accessible discussion….”
Science Books & Films

Customer Reviews

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Most helpful customer reviews
2 of 2 people found the following review helpful
4.0 out of 5 stars Very good, but not for the general reader. Sept. 18 2005
By A Customer
Format:Hardcover
This book explains the concept of symmetry in physics through an examination of a number of related topics, from energy conservation to particle physics. There's a lot of math here, so I would not recommend this book to someone without some university level physics experience. For myself (2nd major in physics 10 years ago) it was just at the right level where I could follow almost all of it, but still learned quite a bit.
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1 of 1 people found the following review helpful
5.0 out of 5 stars Symmetry described brilliantly Sept. 9 2010
Format:Paperback
I have read many books for the lay-person on physics where they try to explain the symmetry aspect of the subject but this book is easily the best I have encountered so far. Starting with Nother's theorem, everything from relativity to quantum mechanics is covered using little mathematics. In particular, I have always had difficulty understanding guage fields and how they provide the fundametal forces but this book provides a clear non-mathematical explaination.

The appendix provides detailed step-by-step explanation of how symmetry groups work.

A little history and philosophy is thrown in too. An example which I found interesting is how long ago was it realised that light had a finite speed? I found the answer surprising.

Although the writing style is light, the subject matter is certainly not "dumbed down". I recommend this book to anyone who has a more than casual interest in physics.
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1 of 1 people found the following review helpful
4.0 out of 5 stars A great attempt at a tough but rewarding subject Aug. 7 2007
Format:Paperback
The wonders of the universe - it's amazing how much we know today about the mysteries that baffled people in the past.

The problem though is that this knowledge was gleaned through the hard work and creativity of mental giants, using abstract tools of higher math on one hand and giant atom smashers on the other.

Pity then the writer who tries to convey the essence of the findings to the reader who has familiarity with neither.

But the two authors here have done a good job. I had some trouble following a few passages. But this is more than made up for in the rest of the book by the lucid descriptions and explanations of how symmetry goes to the core of the latest discoveries in physics. It really is a beautiful universe. And although this book may leave a few mysteries not completely explained, think of it as an invitation to explore further!
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Most Helpful Customer Reviews on Amazon.com (beta)
Amazon.com: 4.0 out of 5 stars  37 reviews
96 of 103 people found the following review helpful
5.0 out of 5 stars Best introduction to modern physics for humanities majors Oct. 2 2004
By Bill Mondello - Published on Amazon.com
Format:Hardcover
One of the problems I face in teaching at a small liberal arts college is providing for our english, theatre, and music majors, a substantive introduction to modern physics. We have to get beyond the basics of heat, light and sound, and we have to talk about quarks, and black holes, relativity, the quantum theory, and the whole wonderful universe. Finally, a book has arrived that does all of this, and wonderfully unifies all of physics under its main mast of symmetry. These things captivate our students. Yet it also helps to have heros (especially some female scientist and mathematicians), and to still be a lyrical and readable account of things, but not to trivialize the subject. Finally, Professor Leon Lederman and Dr. Christopher Hill have risen to the cause. This is the first, and probably the unique, and perhaps the ultimate, attempt to reach out and fill this gap. I can't tell you how happy I am to see this book arrive. I have been using materials from their website, for years, but finally it all comes together in a book that I can assign to my students. This book is great... I repeat, it is great. It isn't easy, but it acheives so much (there are dozens of useless books popularizing science out there). The biography and theme, the life of Emmy Noether, is a perfect lead in to this immense and majestic subject. It is poignant and beautifully written. The appendix, with its humoresque student solving an SAT test problem using symmetry, is probably worth the purchase price of tuition alone. This book will hook my students, and will sit prominently on their bookshelves, in their homes, when they become lawyers, doctors, statesmen, and composers, a ready reference to all that is the mystery of nature, for the rest of their lives.
42 of 43 people found the following review helpful
5.0 out of 5 stars The Beauty Behind Symmetry Dec 9 2004
By M. Paschos - Published on Amazon.com
Format:Hardcover
We are often delighted by the sight of symmetry when we observe it in a beautiful flower, in hexagonal snowflakes, or in man-made structures such as arches or bridges. But how many of us realize that symmetries are closely related to the conservation laws of physics? Lederman and Hill, 2 well-known and practicing physicists, describe the multiple facets of this topic, discussing how symmetry in the flow of time is related to energy conservation. They use this concept as a springboard to expand upon the importance of energy in this period of our civilization with real facts and figures.

The first few chapters deal with symmetries of space and time and their relation to the conservation of momentum and energy. Fascinating stories like that about perpetual motion machines abound, and there are personal vignettes like one about Amalia Noether, a young lady who discovered the deeper connection between symmetries and physical laws and still suffered trials and tribulations as a woman seeking an academic position.

Hill and Lederman take on the task of describing symmetries throughout physics, from classical mechanics to quantum mechanics, all the way to modern topics of particle physics. The book is intended for readers at an advanced high-school level or non-physics majors at university. Chapter 6, for instance, gives a refreshing account of the law of inertia- how it was formulated (incorrectly) by the ancient Greeks, later to be discovered by Galileo and to become a basic postulate in the relativity theory.
Relativity is expounded upon in Ch. 7, whereby full appreciation of its contents requires some guidance. Other chapters describe
e.g., symmetries of quarks and leptons, which currently stimulate public imagination. This is, in fact, the intent of the authors, "...to [motivate and] convince high school science teachers to include some of the important concepts of symmetry in the core disciplines of phyics, chemistry and biology" and to use it as a text/reference book. Their purpose is well-served, especially by the many anecdotes and numerical estimates that make the book easily approachable for the reader.
34 of 35 people found the following review helpful
5.0 out of 5 stars A superb book on modern physics June 8 2006
By Atheen M. Wilson - Published on Amazon.com
Format:Hardcover
Wow. This is some book. Unlike many books that describe the evolution of modern cosmological theory, this one is dedicated to the understanding of physics itself, both its history and it's collation of knowledge about reality.

Through the course of the text, the history of discoveries in physics is described, giving all contributors from Aristarchis, Galileo and Newton, to Einstein, Feynman and Guth, among others, their just due. That it has been a globe effort is evident from the source nationalities of these intellects, as diverse as Scotland and Japan. The narration clearly illustrates that good science is the result of the cumulative efforts of many different individuals, from many different cultures throughout history.

Interesting too is that the book's basic starting point is the intellectual contribution of a brilliant female mathemation, Amalia Noether, working at about the same time and in the same country as the better known Einstein. It is her theory of symmetry in physics, worked out in mathematical theorems, that created a major connecting link between physics and mathematics. Although the book is not in depth enough to actually make her contribution clearer than "Noether's Theorum," her discoveries are obviously at the core of the entire movement in modern physics. It's nice to know that my old high school math teacher, who so disparaged the math abilities of his female students was wrong, wrong, wrong.

The book is well conceived in its presentation of the information. It begins with the earliest efforts of the ancient Greeks and Romans to understand the workings of nature. Their concepts, sometimes startlingly close to the truth, served as the starting point for later researchers. The character of physics as a discipline is presented from a Newtonian perspective in the earlier portions of the book, and I have to say, while it does not bog one down in detailed formulae, it makes much more sense of basic physics than many books do.

The next few chapters deal with Einstein and Bohr, relativity and quantum mechanics. Probably no other book I've read on these subjects has done as good a job of pulling the whole thing together; particularly the authors manage to connect the concepts of Newtonian and modern physics more clearly for the reader. While many books have attempted to do this, often it seems as though the authors make the assumption that the reader will see how the two are connected and hop from one topic to the next without connecting comments. Lederman and Hill put the entire thing out there for the student, assuming that it is not obvious how the two are connected. This description is in fact the bulk of the book.

The last pages of the book are dedicated to a detailed description of the more recent contributions to physics, particularly the theories relating to sub-atomic particles and their interactions and the concepts behind the Feynman diagrams. I have to admit that this aspect of physics has always been the most confusing to me. The authors went a good distance to clearing up some of the questions I had about the topic. This is, however, the most complex discussion in the book, and one that I will doubtless have to re-read before I am entirely comfortable with it.

A superb book on modern physics, one that I'll re-read. I suggest that it be used as an introductory text to high school physics classes, since it makes the details of Newtonian physics usually taught at this level clearer and introduces advanced physics in a more understandable form.
12 of 12 people found the following review helpful
5.0 out of 5 stars A Very Good Book about Modern Physics for Non-Scientists Jan. 10 2006
By Edward F. Strasser - Published on Amazon.com
Format:Hardcover
If you've heard about symmetry and the beauty of physics and wondered what it was all about, this may well be the book for you. In ordinary English, the word "symmetry" refers to something fairly simple. For example, suppose you have a picture of a 6-pointed star and draw a line from one angle to the opposite angle; if you flip the picture about that line, it will still look the same. This book has a more inclusive definitiion of symmetry. Imagine you have a graph of a circle with its center at the origin. Imagine overlaying it with a blank graph on clear plastic, with the origin at a different place and the axes tilted. The graph is still a circle and that, to Lederman and Hill, is a symmetry. Suppose that instead of a circle, the graph is of a formula which represents some physical phenomenon, with one axis representing time and the other standing for space; if the formula is still valid in the overlay, that, too, is a symmetry. Lederman and Hill do a very good of explaining all this, in much more detail, with illustrations from Emma Noether's great equivalence theorems.

When they get to Chapter 8, they do a very good job of explaining mirror reflections and handedness in everyday life, but they give no hint of what this has to do with the idea of parity in particle physics, the subject of the chapter. And that's pretty much how it goes for the rest of the book, i.e. for most of 20th-century physics.

I'm not complaining about that; understanding the physics requires knowledge of a few fields of rather advanced mathematics. For what they do - giving an impression of physics to non-scientists - they do better than any of the many other books and articles I have read. For example, they show how Galileo's principle or relativity connects with Einstein and why the wave equation of electrons means that their interactions must be quantized. And I recommend the appendix on group theory; it is an excellent introduction to how mathematics can be abstracted to apply to new situations. (For an idea of my math background, click on my name, above.)
22 of 25 people found the following review helpful
5.0 out of 5 stars Readable for this Layman Jan. 6 2005
By Mitchell Ross - Published on Amazon.com
Format:Hardcover
This book bridges the gap between esoteric scientific concepts and the truly comprehensible. As someone fascinated by science without a strong background in it, I can truly appreciate the incredible feat of this book. Lederman takes what should be complex and makes it lucid and readable. He takes on the aesthetic of symmetry and translates it to the layman audience. This book is truly worthwhile and informative, for all readers.
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