The First Films of Akira Kurosawa - Eclipse Series 23 (Criterion)
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Years before Akira Kurosawa changed the face of cinema with such iconic works as Rashomon, Seven Samurai, and Yojimbo, he made his start in the Japanese film industry with four popular and exceptional works, created while World War II was raging. All gripping dramas, those rare early films-Sanshiro Sugata; The Most Beautiful; Sanshiro Sugata, Part Two; and The Men Who Tread on the Tiger's Tail-are collected here, including a two-part martial arts saga, a portrait of female volunteers helping the war effort, and a kabuki-derived tale of deception. These captivating films are a glorious introduction to a peerless career.
Sanshiro Sugata (Sugata Sanshiro)
Kurosawa's effortless debut is based on a novel by Tsuneo Tomita about the rivalry between judo and jujitsu.
The Most Beautiful (Ichiban utsukushiku)
This portrait of female volunteer workers at an optics plant during World War II, shot on location at the Nippon Kogaku factory, was created with a patriotic agenda.
Sanshiro Sugata, Part Two (Zoku Sugata Sanshiro)
Kurosawa's first film was such a success that the studio pressured the director into making a sequel.
The Men Who Tread on the Tiger's Tail (Tora no o wo fumu otokotachi)
The fourth film from Kurosawa is based on a sacred twelfth-century incident in which the lord Yoshitsune, with the help of a group of samurai, crossed enemy territory disguised as a monk.
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SUGATA SANSHIRO is an astonishing film, with Kurosawa showing a complete mastery of his craft from very nearly the first day he walked onto the set. Kurosawa was not a supporter of the Japanese military adventures abroad, but as he pointed out in his (almost) autobiography, he also did nothing to protest the agenda of the military. He was passively accepting of the status quo, happy when it came to an end, but willing to acquiesce in order to survive and have a job. As an artist he was frustrated that severe limitations were placed on what he was able to write about and what kinds of films he was able to direct. Usually a degree of anti-Western sentiment and especially anti-Americanism was expected, along with the celebration of Japanese martial values. The challenge for Kurosawa was to find films that did not offend the Japanese military authorities while being somewhat interesting to him. In three of the four films included in this set he was successful; in one he most decidedly was not.
The first SUGATA SANSHIRO was satisfying to him as a director because it was at heart a story of humanity while still having a superficially pleasing message to the military. The film tells the story of the triumph of judo over jujitsu in the late 1880s in Japan . The villain in the film is a practitioner of jujitsu who sports a Western mustache and wears Western clothes, and engages in the American vice of smoking (one of the most telling moments of the film comes when he deposits the ask of his cigarette in a lotus blossom). But as a story teller, Kurosawa is in control from beginning to end. There are many memorable segments, such as a beautiful transition where the title character removes his wooden shoes to pull a rickshaw and then the camera notes the passage of time by focusing on the fate of one shoe, eventually following it down a stream, which eventually links the narrative back to Sugata. Also of note is the use of Takashi Shimura in an important supporting role. While Kurosawa is most famously associated with Toshiro Mifune, he in fact worked far more frequently with Shimura, from this first film, all the way through KAGEMUSHA, in which Shimura played a rather small role due to his declining health (he would die shortly after completing the film). Shimura frequently played supporting roles, but he often played lead roles, such as the title role in Mifune's first film with Kurosawa DRUNKEN ANGEL (although Mifune is superb in it, Shimura actually steals the picture as a drunken doctor trying to save Mifune's character from TB), the amazing IKIRU, and as the head samurai in SEVEN SAMURAI.
From a technical standpoint, one thing that makes SUGATA so interesting is the immediate establishment of his preference for the somewhat unusual transitional wipe, instead of the more usual fade. Eventually he would utilize it in a variety of ways, wiping in some films from upper left to bottom right or from far left to right or top to bottom. He never lost his preference for the wipe rather than the fade.
Kurosawa, like many directors, preferred to work with the same actors as often as possible. Susumu Fujita appears in three of the films in this set, and would go on to work with Kurosawa in NO REGRETS FOR MY YOUTH, and then several other films in the late fifties and early sixties. An intelligent and honest actor, he is excellant in the title role in the two Sugata films, and plays the crucial role of the inspector Togashi in THE MEN WHO TREAD ON TIGER'S TAIL (in traditional Japanese theater, the heart of the play the film reproduces is the encounter between Togashi and the chief guard Benkei - one of the things that makes Kurosawa's version so interesting is the deeply nuanced performance by Fugita, who transforms him from a simpleton to an intelligent interlocutor, and perhaps sympathizer).
Kurosawa's second film (which begins with a speech from factory head Takashi Shimura) is a propaganda picture, about a group of women at a lens factory during WW II. THE MOST BEAUTIFUL refers not to a physically beautiful person, but to one who is productive because they live life beautifully. Although blatantly propagandistic (much of the film's content was decreed by the military), Kurosawa is able to transcend his subject matter to produce a fascinating film with a group of women at the center (he would marry one of the actresses after completing the film). There are a number of interesting segments centered on the relations of the women with each other. Interestingly, while the film deals with a group of workers, Kurosawa typically reveals them becoming individuals. Kurosawa loathed the group mentality that was at the center of Japanese life, always instead showing in his films people breaking from the herd mentality to become genuine individuals. That is certainly true here.
The second SUGATA SANSHIRO film is without question the worst movie in Kurosawa's career. He made it under direct orders from the government, who in the closing year of the war wanted an inspirational film about the Japanese fighting spirit. The film explicitly exploited Japan versus West, using a number of expatriot Europeans to play Americans. The film centers on two fights Sugata has to undertake, one against an American boxer and another against the two brothers of the villain from the first film. There are some blatantly offensive Americans, like an American sailor in the opening scenes in the film who physically abuses his rickshaw driver. It is all rather embarrassing, especially given how deeply Kurosawa was influenced by Western literature and film. Kurosawa admits to being bored throughout the production, giving it scant attention and making it as quickly as he could. He would never make a film as uninteresting and as uninspired again.
THE MEN WHO TREAT ON THE TIGER'S TAIL is a retelling of a loosely historical incident that has inspired a large number of Japanese plays and stories over the centuries, that of Yoshitsune fleeing (eventually unsuccessfully) from his brother Yoritomo, who was convinced that he was a rival. Yoshitsune is the great tragic hero of Japanese history and this story of his guards leading him to safety from his brother is at the heart of N'oh drama. Kurosawa retells the story here, adding a comical character (played by one of the great Japanese comedians of the era) to enliven the story. The story is deeply ritualistic. Because it was shot under American occupation, he shot it under stringent conditions. He was allowed only one set, so that much of it had to be shot on location in forests.
These are important films to understand Kurosawa's career and to see how he was from the very beginning an immensely talented director in control of his craft. They also provide a fascinating contrast to the films that came immediately after. NO REGRETS FOR OUR YOUTH, ONE WONDERFUL SUNDAY, DRUNKEN ANGEL, and STRAY DOG are impressive for their chronicling of the struggle of Japan in the wake of WW II, but these films made during WW II are just as important for understanding his development. They are crucial for understanding both the development of the most famous of all Japanese directors as well as the state of Japanese cinema in the closing years of WW II.
We have a VHS of "The Men Who Tread On The Tiger's Tail," and it's cut slightly differently. The bead-prayer scene is seen through the legs of soldiers, rather than close in. Some of the additional scenes are scratched.
We're keeping them both. It's what film geeks do.
I bought for sanshiro sugata movie, my favorite
Historical japan, you must be interested in culture.
Director: Akira Kurosawa
Rating = ***
Film = barely three (3) stars; subtitles = four (4) stars; restoration = 4.5 stars. Director Akira Kurosawa's first released film exhibits uneven inter-scene direction and an overall lack of energy and excitement. The directorial reins are often not held with a firm hand and occasionally seem to be dropped completely. The plot revolves around the fierce competition between two schools of hand-to-hand combat during the late 1800's, and, accordingly, contains the ingredients for a heavy-duty action movie. But Kurosawa's execution is generally limp (with the exception of the first street fight that kicks off the film). Interior arena (i.e., tournament) shots fail to capture much of the excitement and action the viewer might be expecting to see; the actors seem to be performing many of their own stunts; and professional stunt men seem be in very short supply. It gets worse. The climatic, grudge fight (which the film has been building up to) is all but hidden from the viewer: it takes place in a field of tall grass which pretty much obscures what is happening! The opening credits indicate that a portion of the film was removed by Japanese military authorities, and it's interesting to speculate on what may have been censored and where censorship may have occurred. But judging from the extant print (the one allowed to be exhibited circa 1943), the film could have benefited from the removal of even more footage on artistic rather than political grounds! Cinematography (narrow- screen, black and white) is fine although inter-scene lighting is startlingly uneven. The latter adds to the bumpy road encountered by the viewer: film fluidity is poor and the nuts-and-bolts of the editing process are on full, distracting display. Film score is excellent, but totally Western. Subtitles are just right and show that the writer knows his/her grammar. Restoration is quite good except it missed vertical wear lines and dirt toward the end of the movie. WILLIAM FLANIGAN, PhD.
ICHIBAN UTSUKUSHIKU (THE MOST BEAUTIFUL). Unappealing Mash Up of Wartime Propaganda and Histrionic Nonsense.
Director: Akira Kurosawa
Rating = **
Film = two (2) stars; subtitles = three (3) stars; restoration = 2.5 stars. Any movie that survives a major war does not automatically qualify as being worth watching during peacetime. Especially this one! Director Akira Kurosawa delivers an overly-long, slow-moving, and darn right silly movie (as he often did after the war) using a script filled with contrived trivia and inflated artifacts (especially long blank stares by the lead actresses). Whether this film reflects wartime conditions that existed for Japanese women factory workers (who are shown to be de-facto slaves) seems debatable given how events are depicted. Kurosawa tells a tale of a major optics factory apparently vital to Japan's war effort brought almost to a standstill with the temporary loss of one or two workers. Get real! Lead actresses (and there are quite a few) seem to have been given minimal direction--they all but eat the scenery in their quests for melodramatic over achievement. The director/editor seems fixated on showing redundant scenes especially of workers marching. (The viewer can't help but wonder if less marching by Kurosawa's cast would result in much more time to meet/exceed the ever higher production quotas demanded by Kurosawa's factory management!) Cinematography (narrow screen, black and white) is a bit hard to judge given the often miniscule restoration (see below). Inter-scene lighting is highly variable (due in part to using stock footage and/or inferior film stock?). Music consists mostly of monotonous marching band flutes and drums and repetitive children songs. Subtitles are close enough. Unlike many semi-/un-restored films, the opening credits (which begin by announcing that this is a propaganda film) seem to be in near mint condition. But thereafter, things go down hill almost immediately. There are plenty of wear/dirt marks, splicing artifacts, and fuzzy scenes to be found throughout the movie. Plus age-related deterioration can be seen in just about all fade-to/from-dark transitions. (The film looks far older than it actually is.) Typical "restoration" on the cheap when a film is expected not to sell many copies. Bottom line: This one should have been left in the studio's film vault for film students (in search of dissertation threads) to pick apart. WILLIAM FLANIGAN, PhD.
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