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The New Paradigm for Financial Markets: The Credit Crisis of 2008 and What It Means [Hardcover]

George Soros
5.0 out of 5 stars  See all reviews (3 customer reviews)
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Book Description

May 5 2008
In the midst of the most serious financial upheaval since the Great Depression, legendary financier George Soros explores the origins of the crisis and its implications for the future. Soros, whose breadth of experience in financial markets is unrivaled, places the current crisis in the context of decades of study of how individuals and institutions handle the boom and bust cycles that now dominate global economic activity. "This is the worst financial crisis since the 1930s," writes Soros in characterizing the scale of financial distress spreading across Wall Street and other financial centers around the world. In a concise essay that combines practical insight with philosophical depth, Soros makes an invaluable contribution to our understanding of the great credit crisis and its implications for our nation and the world.

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Product Description


"The London Times" "They're wrong about oil, by George: In short, the standard economic assumption that supply and demand drive prices is only a starting point for understanding financial markets. In boom-bust cycles, the textbook theory is not just slightly inaccurate but totally wrong. This is the main argument made by George Soros in his fascinating book on the credit crunch, "The New Paradigm for Financial Markets," launched at an LSE lecture last night."

About the Author

George Soros is chairman of Soros Fund Management and is the founder of a global network of foundations dedicated to supporting open societies. He is the author of several best-selling books including 'The Bubble of American Supremacy', 'Underwriting Democracy', and 'The Age of Fallibility'. He was born in Budapest and lives in New York City.

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5.0 out of 5 stars wake up call March 11 2013
By Marie
Format:Hardcover|Verified Purchase
excellent pour approfondir le domaine de la finance et ses contradictions
un outil de référence pour choisir la façon la plus adéquate de s'introduire au domaine de l'économie
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0 of 2 people found the following review helpful
5.0 out of 5 stars Reflexivity. The way forward. Aug. 25 2010
Concisely powerful, Soros' new book introduces the way forward for economics. A must read for those following the transformation happening in economic principles once accepted but now discarded.
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0 of 2 people found the following review helpful
5.0 out of 5 stars Amazing foresight Jan. 5 2010
Ordered and read this book when it just came out (in '08). Living through the crisis and got to know what Mr. Soros wrote was so timely and apt; if one had listened to his advice, lot of wealth would have been preserved.

Very insightful, at times not easy to digest but overall gives a coherent picture of what was to happen in anticipation (and finally did) which is true testament to a genius in his field.

We should all learn from such wise men.
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Most Helpful Customer Reviews on (beta) 3.3 out of 5 stars  89 reviews
169 of 186 people found the following review helpful
4.0 out of 5 stars Short but interesting May 8 2008
By Dr. Lee D. Carlson - Published on
Format:Hardcover|Verified Purchase
In August 2006 the risk manager of the home equity division of one of the largest banks in the United States collected his staff together and told them that the portfolio they manage had begun to exhibit dramatic losses. All the other banking institutions were beginning to exhibit similar losses he said, but that policies to be put in place will mitigate these losses and therefore "not to worry." He resigned his position only six months later, and at the time the mortgage losses throughout the nation were accelerating dramatically, forcing layoffs, resignations, panic in the financial markets, and aggressive action from the Federal Reserve.

Theories abound on why this turmoil is occurring, one of these being discussed in this book, which is written by one of most well-known financial speculators of all time. The tone of the book is general and philosophical, and the author refrains from indulging in mathematical considerations, but there are many concepts in the book that are interesting and merit further investigation. The author's intellectual honesty is refreshing, in that he admits the job he has taken on is a formidable one. Describing the workings of the financial markets is challenging, and has occupied the time of countless researchers and financial analysts.

The author wants to get rid of the "market equilibrium" paradigm in traditional economics and replace it with one that he has called "reflexivity". This concept is similar to a few that have been discussed in recent months, one holding that investor analysis and modeling activities actually serve to change the markets, rather than just "mirror" them. The author's idea is that humans have both a cognitive function and a "manipulative" one when they approach the financial markets. This has the implication that social phenomena cannot be described or studied in the same way as natural phenomena. They are separate areas of study, he argues, and he attempts to justify their separation on the pages of this very short book.

His analysis is interesting and provocative, and certainly worthy of attention, but to put it on a firm quantitative foundation would require a large amount of work. The theory of reflexivity is not the only proposal to be put forward that differs from the classical one. There have been many in recent years due to the increasing importance of financial engineering, the latter of which has been applied on a massive scale. But the author proposed this theory almost two decades ago, when derivatives trading and financial modeling were beginning to ramp up. He therefore foresaw the need for alternative points of view when dealing with financial instruments and market activities that cannot be captured by the classical paradigm.

The book is part autobiographical and could probably be better appreciated if the reader was familiar with the author's earlier works. But anyone interested in making sense out of the current news reports will find an interesting read here, even though at times the author's political affiliation comes out a bit heavy-handed. In addition, his attitude about free markets and "laissez faire" is somewhat puzzling since a purely "laissez faire" economy has not been realized historically. Any arguments against its efficacy are therefore misplaced. Those who still believe in "laissez faire" may therefore object strongly to many of the author's assertions and his recommendations at the end of the book for fixing the current "credit crisis." Whatever your world view though it is perhaps fair to say that the increasing complexity of the financial markets demands new ideas and approaches.If anything a good understanding of financial dynamics is a matter of survival. The financial markets of the twenty-first century take no prisoners.
98 of 113 people found the following review helpful
3.0 out of 5 stars Rampaging Smart Guys June 11 2008
By G. D. Geiss - Published on
I saw Mr. Soros testify before Washington State (home state of my favorite soccer goal keeper) Sen. Maria Cantwell's committee the other day (on TV, of course) concerning possible oil futures speculation. I was impressed with Senator Cantwell (although we'd agree on little, policy-wise) and with Mr. Soros (despite myself). So I picked up this book to see what he had to say on the central economic issue of the day.

I won't bash the book, exactly, but it was pretty rambling, pretty repetitive, and spent a considerably longer time trying to defend/explain his theory of "reflectivity" and bashing Republican politics than discussing the credit crisis. Still it offered some useful points and observations. It's personal account of worlwide historical financial events that Mr. Soros himself not only lived through but participated in as well as a concise account of the events that comprise the subprime mortgage meltdown were themselves worth, in my view, the price of admission.

In the end, though, the central theme of the book, it's overarching structure, is Mr. Soro's longstanding theorem about "reflectivity" in financial markets. He maintains that both the factual "reality" and the participants' resort to emotional facilities as a result of imperfect informational access interact with each other in a kind of feedback loop. As a result of this "reflectivity" serious degrees of uncertainty are injected into the marketplace that are not predicted by "classical" economic theories of "rationality" or "equilibrium". This, he says, invalidates market models based on those classic concepts. What to do about that, of course, he's not quite so clear about, except, perhaps, you should vote Democratic (his advice, not mine).

Unfortunately by his own analysis, this theorem is unsatisfactory as anything other than a cautionary alarm bell. By it's own definition and assertion it is untestable and (in the terms of one of Mr. Soros's own favorite philosophers, Karl Popper) incapable of falsification. Since it's prime tenent is that it's unpredictable and not even of consistent relevance in any given situation, it is roughly akin to the statement of Cretan philosopher, Epimenides, (quoted by Soros himself) that "all Cretans always lie". If, claiming unpredictablility, "reflectivity" yields accurate predictions, it is false.

Nassim Nicholas Taleb has called these same kind of events as said to be caused by "reflectivity" black swans. Inductive reasoning in financial markets has led to some frightening financial meltdowns. Having seen only white swans (even in their hundred thousands) and therefore betting the ranch there ARE only white ones is a sound foundation for disaster. Mr. Taleb helpfully also points out that somewhere downunder there are, in fact, black swans.

Benoit Mandelbrot has suggested that his fractile geometry, rather than bell curves, is a better financial model and, in fact, perhaps allows for better predictability. Don't know about that. The intersection between regulators and markets that Mr. Soros rather convincingly argues must be, at least in part, responsible for the subprime mortgage meltdown, doesn't strike me as a geometric intersection, fractile or otherwise. And besides, Herr Doktor Mandelbrot's math is WAY beyond my (or I'd postulate any other non genius math brain's) comprehension.

For me though, the persuasiveness of Mr. Soros's point about unpredictablity and odd shaped (non bell) curves can be found in the seminal work of William James, who demonstrated 100 years ago what every good salesman has always known (at least by instinct, if not overtly): that human beings ACT on feelings and use their intellectual reasoning to rationalize the result. I would accept, a priori, that no single individual actor in today's complex financial markets in our globally interwoven world can possibly know all the relevant facts about any one proposed action therein. Thus he must have imperfect information. And even as among the myriad of facts he does "know", he will use his experience, his intuition based on it and on the recounted experiences of those he has learned to trust, to value those various factual inputs.

I would submit (and I don't think Mr. Soros would raise too strenous an objection) that gernerally speaking, in a broad enough marketplace, all those individual "emotional" decisions ought to cancel each other out to a degree that would render them indistinguishable for practical purposes from randomness. Perhaps not perfect bell curves (some fat tails and modified kurtosis), but within acceptable (and perhaps hedgeable) limits.

But humans are also herd animals (we, however, call them tribes), and that instinct is a survival trait and still strong. One need only contemplate the blowing of a single car horn on a gridlocked highway that is inevitably followed in nanoseconds by hundreds more, to understand it's continued pervasive presence. When that happens in financial affairs, when smart guys get afraid of being left behind the "easy" money, when they can't stand the other tribe harvesting all that golden fleese or bear the thought of some young ambitious upstart taking over their hard won desk by merely following sombody else's playbook (what have you done for me lately says the boss), then homework vanishes. Smart guy follows smart guy in a kind of stampede. Risk of loss no longer matters or is outweighed by the risk of being stranded alone. Each of us (no I'm not a trader, but empathy demands the collective pronoun) falls all over ourselves to steal candy from the blind confectioner, never mind that we know that the poison pill is there in one of those jars on one of those shelves. It won't happen to me, we say. I'm too smart, I'll see it coming, I'll get away. This time it'll be different. We rationalize the emotional decision to chase after the leaders, to blow our horn, too.

This is far too long, let me try to wind up. In this crisis surely whole truckloads of the "smartest guys in the room" demonstrated levels of greed, arrogance, and impaired judgment that, despite being all too human (to borrow a phrase from Nietzsche, who seems particularly apt in this context) are still, in retrospect, shocking. Still, "free markets" provide efficiencies and multiplicities of choice that cannot be duplicated (or even approached) by any central planner or micromanaging regulator. But when these herd markets fail as spectacularly as they have here, the individualist free marketer along with the "reflectivist" (if I may be so bold as to lable Mr. Soros) are both left wanting a better way, a better regulatory system, for keeping these rampaging smart guys from trampling in their passing our own hard won little (in my case) or not so little (in Mr. Soros's) net eggs. This is a thoughtful book. Even just trying to "deconstruct" it may lead you down interesting thoughtways.
63 of 72 people found the following review helpful
4.0 out of 5 stars Putting Limits on Leverage July 19 2008
By Izaak VanGaalen - Published on
George Soros thinks that the current credit crunch is the most severe financial crisis since the 1930s and that it marks the end of an era of credit expansion based on the dollar. In this book he argues that a new paradigm is urgently needed to better understand what is going on. The paradigm used until now by most economists was based on false premises.

The existing paradigm, often referred to as free-market fundamentalism, holds that markets are self-correcting, that they naturally tend toward equilibrium. Economists as far back as Adam Smith have argued against regulation or government intervention of any kind since it would interfere with the natural forces of the market.

Soros correctly argues the contrary. In fact government intervention has repeatedly saved the market. A few examples are the bankruptcy of Continental Illinois in 1984, or the failure of Long Term Capital Management in 1998, or the current bolstering of Fannie Mae and Freddie Mac (my example). The notion that the market deviates from an orderly path is the rule rather than the exception.

The new paradigm that is needed, according to Soros, must incorporate the theory of reflexity. Developed in previous works by himself and his mentor Karl Popper, reflexivity examines the relationship between thinking and reality, between the cognitive function and the manipulative function. In the investment world, this means that when investors are bullish on, say, housing or mortgage backed securities their values go up, not because they become intrinsically more valuable, but because everyone else is thinking they are more valuable. This is basically old-fashioned market psychology dressed-up in theory. The mechanism that allows the market to go up is self-reinforcing but ultimately self-defeating. The market goes from euphoria to despair overshooting the top, and ultimately the bottom too. Witness today's housing market.

We are currently experiencing the consequences of unregulated credit markets and Soros argues that if more is not done the crisis could get much worse. He points out that moneterist doctrine in inadequate. Controlling the money supply is only half of the picture. The internet bubble, the housing bubble, and the current commodities bubble were created through excessive use of leverage. The amount of debt currently outstanding is unprecedented. Any new financial regulations will need to temper the use of credit to avoid future bubbles.

Soros argues that the US must come to grips with the new realities if it is to maintain its preeminent position in the world. If we are not careful the dollar will lose its standing as the reserve currency of choice. The task of regulating credit will now became even more precarious since the credit market is already tightening. Soros, as a former hedge fund manager, realizes that credit is the lifeblood of capitalism and any overregulation will also damage the economy. Reflexivity theory aside, this book is an excellent discussion of the challenges we are facing today.
14 of 14 people found the following review helpful
1.0 out of 5 stars Disappointment Nov. 28 2008
By Real Type 2 Diabetic - Published on
I admire Mr. Soros for his philanthropy but I find this book disappointing. I was hoping to gain some insight into the economic crisis but instead got the wordy, unedited version of what amounts to a paper on his theory of reflexivity. The book contained too many extraneous pages about how he always wanted to be a philosopher, how criticisms of his initial theory were right (sort of) but also wrong and why he is now vindicated and is truly a philosopher. There was a chapter documenting trades he made recently that seemed out of place.

Had the editor done her job I think this book would have deflated into a paper which presented little to nothing new.
168 of 218 people found the following review helpful
5.0 out of 5 stars Hmmm... April 5 2008
By Me - Published on
Format:Kindle Edition
About the previous review, I find it interesting that you say the subprime issue is: "a situation that has perplexed all economists" and then you proceed to give your own solution at the end of what you wrote. Are you saying that you alone have the solution to something that has "perplexed all economists?" Anyway, not all economists are "perplexed" by the issue...they merely speak in technical terms so most people don't understand the gravity of what they are saying. They have known of this issue for a long time. In fact, Bernanke wrote a book on what he is about to do with interest rates. It is called "Inflation Targeting." He will seek to maintain a certain "core inflation rate." Note that *food* and *fuel* are NOT included in the "core rate." They are part of what he is calling "headline inflation." The FED will not react to changes in food and fuel (headline) inflation directly...only after they have affected the "core inflation rate." This lag in control will likely create oscillations in the system. Great for stock traders, but tough for the average person with a life. The FED will have tough times politically.

Further, you say that it has "instilled fear in anybody who wasn't vacationing in the space station in the last year." Perhaps you have forgotten that Soros fought hard during the last election (longer than a year ago) for a change in these very policies. Buffett spoke out against derivatives long ago. Jim Rogers (co-founder of Quantum Fund with Soros) wrote about the commodities boom in 2004 in his book "Hot Commodities." Implicit in the view that commodities will boom is the view that there will be hyper-inflation, since everything is made of commodities and the hyper-inflated prices will be passed along or the companies will go out of business. Greenspan also alluded to hyper-inflation in his book.

Anyway, Soros is an expert in this field and has been quite prescient on this topic for years. Following advice such as his (as well as that of Rodgers, Buffett, Graham, and other notables) has permitted me to position my portfolio defensively for these times. I started years ago (hence my knowledge of what was known more than a year ago.) I sold my home at the peak of housing and bought a home in an area that did not have the same unrealistic home inflation. The remaining cashed-out home equity was invested in other defensive things. My home value has not fallen nearly as much as it would have had I kept my other home, thanks to Mr. Soros' foresight. I look forward to what he has to say about the coming financial winds so I can plot my next step in capital preservation/expansion.

Don't judge the book based on theoretical criticisms. Look at the reality of the track record of the man himself. Also, consider the fundamental fact that most "bubbles" occur because of over leveraging and greed. Years ago there was the LBO bust and today, we have a bust from over leveraged banks and improperly leveraged homeowners. I say "improperly" because the way those contracts were written practically assures a bust...prepayment penalties that are really refinance penalties, interest rates dependent on LIBOR (London Inter-Bank Offerring Rate) instead of US rates, etc.

In short, if the FED can't use its tools to avoid the foreclosures, it will cause a depression in the housing market. In fact, the housing market is already in depression by definition. That is, interest rate changes cannot be used to avoid the harm...therefore, severe price deflation (i.e., "depression") and job losses result. Since 78% of the US economy is housing related (e.g., furniture sales, appliance sales, insurance, lawn care, carpeting, mortgage banking, etc.) the situation is clearly serious.

Now...all of this has a deeper level. There is a larger case of over-leveraging that is starting to unwind right as you read this review: The National Debt. Yes, deficits *do* matter. They are obligated taxes...with interest. The payment of the trillion dollar national debt will be painful and require a type of tax that noone voted for: Inflation. Why? Well, how is one going to get people to vote for a tax to pay off the debt when they were already voting against the taxes they already had? The only solution is an involuntary, hidden tax: Inflation. Over time, Inflation makes debts look smaller and more managable. The hidden inflation tax is *already* here because of the current interest rate cuts and will grow to a size people haven't yet imagined. Buy gold, oil, or any other commodity. This will be about a ten year cycle, overall, so inflation has a long time to run.

Since inflation has already started, it will be difficult to stop. Like a fire, it will continue to burn until susceptible assets are destroyed. The remaining assets will be helped by it though.

Buffett warned of this years ago. He recently said that more and more deficit spending and rate cuts would eventually make the dollar "worthless" (a statement he later "corrected" under some pressure to "worth less".) Anyway, the situation is serious. Don't trust any particular review of the book...not even this one. Look at the book yourself and make your OWN judgement regarding Soros' acumen.
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