"In the horizon of hope in the 'coming God' we confront Jesus, his mission and history with the ancient messianic question: "Are you the one who is to come?" Thereupon we will discover that the messianic claim of Jesus lies in the prolepsis of his proclamation of the kingdom." Jürgen Moltmann
The Messianic Hope:
According to the linguists, the Hebrew participle mashîah; from which we get the word messiah (to anoint), and therefore simply means 'anointed one'. Since the rite of anointing in Israel was 'merely at symbolic act', designating an individual as having been separated by God to act under the guidance of His Spirit, the term 'anointed' generally applied to those holding the office of priest, prophet and, in particular, king. Interestingly Kae remarks that during the biblical period of Israelite history the individual involved in inaugurating each new phase held all three messianic offices.Thus, owing to the weight of historical experience, he argues for an Israelite expectation that saw the inauguration of a new era by a messianic figure in whom all three offices were combined."
The Rabbinic Messiah:
Rabbinic literature generally believes in a personal Messiah to come. Rabbi Hillel (3rd century), however, declared: "There shall be no Messiah for Israel, because they have already enjoyed him in the days of Hezekiah." Rashi (1040-1105) interpreted this strange remark to mean that Hillel denies belief in a personal Messiah but believes in the coming of the messianic age. All the medieval Jewish thinkers however, affirm their faith in a personal Messiah. Rabbi Akiba recognized Bar Kochba, the rebel leader of disastrous insurrection of 132-135 A.D., as the Messiah even though he was obviously a human being and one who could perform no miracles.
Fitzmyer Magisterial Study:
The most significant part of this scholarly study, for a lay reader, lies within his concise and informative conclusion. "because messianism was a notion that surfaced when it did in world history, its record has been important not only for Judaism, but for Christianity too, which grew out of it and developed its own form of messianism. Being a specific phenomenon that appeared at a given time and place, it was not merely a passing or ephemeral fad, but rather a phenomenon that shaped human history in different ways." His conclusion culminates in a masterful observation, "How different that Jewish Messiah from the Christian Messiah who has already come. He has not only been identified with Jesus of Nazareth, who was crusified as a criminal and rebel, but he bears in human history by the name Jesus Christ (=Jesus the Messiah), both among those who are his followers and among those who are not..."
History of an Idea:
J. Staley of Seattle U. describes the book as a 'valuable updating and expansion' of Mowinckel and Klausner studies, comparing it to recent works like DSS scholar J. Charlesworth editorial collection, The Messiah: Developments in earliest Judaism and Christianity. But one outstanding question he raises is, "what communities Fitzmyer thinks are reflected in his textual study.
Salvation Is from the Jews: The Role of Judaism in Salvation History
Salvation Is from the Jews: Saving Grace in Judaism and Messianic Hope in Christianity (Michael Glazier Books)