7 of 7 people found the following review helpful
- Published on Amazon.com
Format: Kindle Edition
In many ways, the history of the woman reader is the history of reading. Women have been reading since the beginning, as far as we can tell. The history of women readers is also a history of women writers, since much of the evidence that women have been reading comes from their also having written.
And although it's a fairly broad(!) history of women readers, the emphasis is on Western women readers. Author Belinda Jack alerts us to the existence of women readers throughout the ages in China, Japan, and the Islamic world, but the bulk of the narrative is about women in ancient Mesopotamia and Greece, then Europe, and North America.
I was surprised to read that women in ancient Babylon were among the scribes who copied works for official use. Fourteen of 185 professional scribes in one list that dates from as early as 1850 BC were women. Being a scribe in the ancient world may not have been an especially prestigious job, but it was important and required extensive training. And apparently there was nothing odd about women doing it.
From Roman times through medieval times, whether a woman learned to read usually depended on her class. Upper class boys and girls learned to read, usually at home. Lower classes did not.
An interesting tidbit is the first known reference (around AD 350) to reading silently, to oneself. In the beginning, reading was done as a social or professional activity, out loud. Reading silently allowed people to read individually, a potentially dangerous and subversive pastime.
Of course, another milestone was the printing press, which allowed mass production of books and pamphlets, leading to a cycle of greater literacy leading to greater diversity of reading materials leading to more readership. Big inroads into literacy took hold in the 15th and 16th centuries, until by the 17th century, most men and women of all classes could read.
What women read was revealing. Mostly, women read what men were reading. But they also read romances and books about gardening and housework and child-rearing. We discover that Margaret Beaufort, mother of Henry VII, the first Tudor monarch, purchased a French romance novel in the 1480s. The publisher, William Caxton himself, the publisher of the first books in English, used this celebrity connection to advertise the book, even though there is no evidence that Margaret ever read the book, or if she did, that she cared for it, since she never bought another like it.
Belinda Jack covers literacy into the 21st century, in which literacy rates for men and women are much the same through the developed world, but there are pockets of inequality that are quite disturbing, especially in Afghanistan, many Arab states, and in sub-Saharan Africa.
The Woman Reader is a very enjoyable and informative book, with dozens of illustrations that are often as intriguing as the stories behind them.
(a review copy courtesy of NetGalley)
5 of 5 people found the following review helpful
- Published on Amazon.com
Format: Kindle Edition
As author Belinda Jack shows us in her book, The Woman Reader, the evolution of women as readers has been a long and uneven one. There is little known about the earliest women readers and most of what is known is due to women's own records of what they were reading. Not surprising, most early women readers were from wealthy families. However, what is surprising is how many of these early readers taught their sons and their daughters to read, recommended reading lists even as theses children became adults thus, in many cases, influencing the ruling of nations, and, in several cases, set up schools for poor girls and women. What is also surprising is how often these women wrote to refute some male writer who claimed women should not be allowed to read due to their 'weaker minds' and how often other male writers wrote in support of women's literacy.
The discussion of female readers inevitably leads to discussions of what they read, to women as writers, and, after the advent of the printing press, women as publishers. She also discusses the rise of literacy among women, not only in the upper classes, but in the middle and working classes as well which led, inevitably, to the publishing of books aimed exclusively towards them. This was especially true of the novel which, from its earliest beginnings seemed to be more popular with women than men.
This also led, inevitably, to much discussion about the dangers of reading of anything not religious and/or morally instructive on the 'weaker' sex and the fears that indiscriminate reading would lead to bad marriage choices, possibly madness, but, perhaps worst of all, women's ability to lead fulfilling solitary and sexual lives without the need of a male figure to guide them. The book is illustrated and there is one marvelous picture from the 18th c. of a nude woman reclining on a couch, book in hand, while in the shadows a little devil, adds more books to the pile beside her.
Jack points out how even female authors like George Eliot felt that much of what was being written for women was bad for them and that novels should always and only reflect real life. Writers like Dickens were considered lesser talents whose writing was suitable only to entertain chambermaids. I will say here, I found Ms jack's use of this term to describe, I assume, working women an odd one but it is interesting to note that by the middle of the 19th century, literacy among working women was so widespread that books were being written for them and they were being released in serialized form so that they could afford them.
My only real criticism of this book would be about the last part concerning the 20th and 21st c. Perhaps because of the huge amount of materials available to women, she chose instead to discuss the effects of the rise of TV and movies on reading; some, to most of us, obscure women's reading groups; and the publishing industry itself. Among some rather glaring omissions are the popularity of 'chick lit' and YA urban fantasies aimed at the young woman market and the widespread use of ebooks (I found the second somewhat ironic since I read this on my Kobo) and books written exclusively for paperless reading.
Still, in The Woman Reader, author Belinda Jack gives a fascinating picture of women as readers and, by extension, writers from our earliest portraits of women drawn on cave walls right up to the present. Although, it is mainly concerned with women in western culture, there are some interesting references to Asian women readers as well as modern women readers in less liberated societies like present-day Iran. It is well-researched, well-documented, and beautifully illustrated and would be a great addition to the library of anyone interested in the history of women or reading or both.
4 of 4 people found the following review helpful
Story Circle Book Reviews
- Published on Amazon.com
"Of all women's reading the novel has been the most controversial." This is but one perspective in Belinda Jack's seminal work, The Woman Reader, which discusses many aspects of what women have read, and still read today. A delightful, erudite read, this book takes us from "Primitives, Goddesses and Aristocrats" to "The Modern Women Reader" and everything in between. The Woman Reader is to be read slowly, and savored as we touch bases with our pasts as women readers.
The introduction is indispensable for in it Jack's discusses what is called Mother's Legacies, one of the first acceptable (to men) writing forms in the 17th Century. This form was often used in a time when mothers did not live through childbirth, a memoir of sorts meant for her children to read.
Jack also writes about the factors that kept women from reading openly for hundreds of years: the Church, well-meaning parents who wanted marriageable daughters, not bluestockings, and husbands, who were uncomfortable with wives who read and thought for themselves.
So many interesting lines of thought are contained here as well. Reading silently, to oneself, as opposed to the common practice of reading aloud, in groups, as a social activity... Reading books "meant for women" (e.g. penny dreadfuls, romances, housekeeping books, books on childrearing) versus reading literature meant to be enlightening... and even historical standards dating back to prehistoric times. Most of the viewpoints are Western-based, although there are some thoughts on women readers in Asian cultures as well.
A constant refrain from men, authorities and the law was that "allowing" women to read was corrupting and would lead to immoral behavior. Jack delineates these off-kilter standards and shows how even later generations, into the 20th century, were controlled by their social standing and money; the poor and the servant classes either couldn't afford or weren't encouraged to read, because it would promote laziness and sloth.
Another bonus with The Woman Reader is the wonderful art that illustrates Jack's points. From the first, a 1333 depiction of Mary (The Annunciation and Two Saints, Simone Martin) to the last, a photograph of two Iranian women students reading a newspaper in 2000, we are taken on a visual tour of women readers, as well as reading about the books that have inspired (and condemned) women for millennia.
Each chapter brings revelations and interesting detail to the history of what women have read. Seeing what we have struggled against (e.g. Rousseau's belief that women should read to "cultivate their minds" but only with the intent and purpose of pleasing their husbands and his social circle with conversation.) There are Endnotes to enrich your reading and an excellent Index if you are looking for a particular topic within The Woman Reader.
In the present time, where women in the Middle East and elsewhere in the world are restricted from reading, women continue to be willing to take risks for "the sake of reading and for the opportunity to discuss their reading with others. The future of women's reading--like the future of the relations between women and men--looks as challenging, intriguing, contested and lively, as its past." Belinda Jack encourages the Western women to be there for their less fortunate sisters, and to speak up against injustices in education, wherever we see them.
by Laura Strathman Hulka
for Story Circle Book Reviews
reviewing books by, for, and about women