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The Unified Modeling Language User Guide (2nd Edition) Hardcover – May 19 2005

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The Unified Modeling Language User Guide (2nd Edition) + Design Patterns: Elements of Reusable Object-Oriented Software
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Product Details

  • Hardcover: 496 pages
  • Publisher: Addison-Wesley Professional; 2 edition (May 19 2005)
  • Language: English
  • ISBN-10: 0321267974
  • ISBN-13: 978-0321267979
  • Product Dimensions: 19 x 3.3 x 23.6 cm
  • Shipping Weight: 1.2 Kg
  • Average Customer Review: 3.4 out of 5 stars  See all reviews (75 customer reviews)
  • Amazon Bestsellers Rank: #75,400 in Books (See Top 100 in Books)
  • See Complete Table of Contents

Product Description

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One of the most important recent developments in software engineering is the Unified Modeling Language (UML) standard for documenting software designs. Written by UML's inventors (the so-called Three Amigos of software engineering), The Unified Modeling Language User Guide provides a very appealing guide to all the fundamentals of using UML effectively. The book opens with a basic tour of the essential concepts and modeling diagrams used in UML, including class diagrams, use case diagrams, and basic modeling principles. The authors pay close attention to modeling classes (and documenting the relationships between classes) as well as use case diagrams (which show how software will be used by various actors in a system). This book mixes in a little software-engineering theory, too, but it makes use of clear examples and actual UML diagrams to illustrate key concepts.

Later in the book, the authors discuss more difficult notational diagrams (such as state diagrams and activity diagrams, which can be used to model behavior in a system). Whatever your background in software engineering, you'll no doubt appreciate the author's clear explanations of basic (and advanced) modeling concepts, as well as the nuts-and-bolts details of today's powerful UML. With its combination of expert modeling advice and excellent detail on the specifics of UML, this book will be absolutely essential reading for anyone who wants to use UML for real-world software design. --Richard Dragan --This text refers to an out of print or unavailable edition of this title.

From the Inside Flap

The Unified Modeling Language (UML) is a graphical language for visualizing, specifying, constructing, and documenting the artifacts of a software-intensive system. The UML gives you a standard way to write a system's blueprints, covering conceptual things such as business processes and system functions, as well as concrete things such as classes written in a specific programming language, database schemas, and reusable software components.

This book teaches you how to use the UML effectively.

This book covers UML version 2.0.


In this book, you will

  • Learn what the UML is, what it is not, and why the UML is relevant to the process of developing software-intensive systems.
  • Master the vocabulary, rules, and idioms of the UML and, in general, learn how to "speak" the language effectively.

Understand how to apply the UML to solve a number of common modeling problems.

The user guide provides a reference to the use of specific UML features. However, it is not intended to be a comprehensive reference manual for the UML; that is the focus of another book, The Unified Modeling Language Reference Manual, Second Edition (Rumbaugh, Jacobson, Booch, Addison-Wesley, 2005).The user guide describes a development process for use with the UML. However, it is not intended to provide a complete reference to that process; that is the focus of yet another book, The Unified Software Development Process (Jacobson, Booch, Rumbaugh, Addison-Wesley, 1999).

Finally, this book provides hints and tips for using the UML to solve a number of common modeling problems, but it does not teach you how to model. This is similar to a user guide for a programming language that teaches you how to use the language but does not teach you how to program.


The UML is applicable to anyone involved in the production, deployment, and maintenance of software. The user guide is primarily directed to members of the development team who create UML models. However, it is also suitable to those who read them, working together to understand, build, test, and release a software-intensive system. Although this encompasses almost every role in a software development organization, the user guide is especially relevant to analysts and end users (who specify the required structure and behavior of a system), architects (who design systems that satisfy those requirements), developers (who turn those architectures into executable code), quality assurance personnel (who verify and validate the system's structure and behavior), librarians (who create and catalogue components), and project and program managers (who generally wrestle with chaos, provide leadership and direction, and orchestrate the resources necessary to deliver a successful system).

The user guide assumes a basic knowledge of object-oriented concepts. Experience in an object-oriented programming language or method is helpful but not required.

How to Use This Book

For the developer approaching the UML for the first time, the user guide is best read linearly. You should pay particular attention to Chapter 2, which presents a conceptual model of the UML. All chapters are structured so that each builds upon the content of the previous one, thus forming a linear progression.For the experienced developer seeking answers to common modeling problems using the UML, this book can be read in any order. You should pay particular attention to the common modeling problems presented in each chapter.

Organization and Special Features

The user guide is organized into seven parts:

  • Part 1Getting Started
  • Part 2Basic Structural Modeling
  • Part 3Advanced Structural Modeling
  • Part 4Basic Behavioral Modeling
  • Part 5Advanced Behavioral Modeling
  • Part 6Architectural Modeling
  • Part 7Wrapping Up

The user guide contains two appendices: a summary of the UML notation and a summary of the Rational Unified Process. A glossary of common terms is also provided. An index follows.

Each chapter addresses the use of a specific UML feature, and most are organized into the following four sections:

  1. Getting Started
  2. Terms and Concepts
  3. Common Modeling Techniques
  4. Hints and Tips

The third section introduces and then solves a set of common modeling problems. To make it easy for you to browse the guide in search of these use cases for the UML, each problem is identified by a distinct heading, as in the following example.

Modeling Architectural Patterns

Each chapter begins with a summary of the features it covers, as in the following example.

In this chapter
  • Active objects, processes, and threads
  • Modeling multiple flows of control
  • Modeling interprocess communication
  • Building thread-safe abstractions

Similarly, parenthetical comments and general guidance are set apart as notes, as in the following example.

Abstract operations map to what C++ calls pure virtual operations; leaf operations in the UML map to C++ nonvirtual operations.

The UML is semantically rich. Therefore, a presentation about one feature may naturally involve another. In such cases, cross references are provided in the left margin, as on this page.

Blue highlights are used in figures to indicate explanations about a model, as opposed to the model itself, which is always shown in black. Code is distinguished by displaying it in a monospace font, as in this example.

Acknowledgement. The authors wish to thank Bruce Douglass, Per Krol, and Joaquin Miller for their assistance in reviewing the manuscript of the second edition. A Brief History of the UML

The first object-oriented language is generally acknowledged to be Simula-67, developed by Dahl and Nygaard in Norway in 1967. This language never had a large following, but its concepts were a major inspiration for later languages. Smalltalk became widely available in the early 1980s, followed by other object-oriented languages such as Objective C, C++, and Eiffel in the late 1980s. Object-oriented modeling languages appeared in the 1980s as methodologists, faced with a new genre of object-oriented programming languages and increasingly complex applications, began to experiment with alternative approaches to analysis and design. The number of object-oriented methods increased from fewer than 10 to more than 50 during the period between 1989 and 1994. Many users of these methods had trouble finding a modeling language that met their needs completely, thus fueling the so-called method wars. A few methods gained prominence, including Booch's method, Jacobson's OOSE (Object-Oriented Software Engineering), and Rumbaugh's OMT (Object Modeling Technique). Other important methods included Fusion, Shlaer-Mellor, and Coad-Yourdon. Each of these was a complete method, although each was recognized as having strengths and weaknesses. In simple terms, the Booch method was particularly expressive during the design and construction phases of projects; OOSE provided excellent support for use cases as a way to drive requirements capture, analysis, and high-level design; and OMT was most useful for analysis and data-intensive information systems.

A critical mass of ideas started to form by the mid 1990s when Grady Booch (Rational Software Corporation), James Rumbaugh (General Electric), Ivar Jacobson (Objectory), and others began to adopt ideas from each other's methods, which collectively were becoming recognized as the leading object-oriented methods worldwide. As the primary authors of the Booch, OMT, and OOSE methods, we were motivated to create a unified modeling language for three reasons. First, our methods were already evolving toward each other independently. It made sense to continue that evolution together rather than apart, eliminating the potential for any unnecessary and gratuitous differences that would further confuse users. Second, by unifying our methods, we could bring some stability to the object-oriented marketplace, allowing projects to settle on one mature modeling language and letting tool builders focus on delivering more useful features. Third, we expected that our collaboration would yield improvements for all three earlier methods, helping us to capture lessons learned and to address problems that none of our methods previously handled well.

As we began our unification, we established three goals for our work:

  1. To model systems, from concept to executable artifact, using object-
  2. oriented techniques
  3. To address the issues of scale inherent in complex, mission-critical systems
  4. To create a modeling language usable by both humans and machines

Devising a language for use in object-oriented analysis and design is not unlike designing a programming language. First, we had to constrain the problem: Should the language encompass requirements specification? Should the language be sufficient to permit visual programming? Second, we had to strike a balance between expressiveness and simplicity. Too simple a language would limit the breadth of problems that could be solved; too complex a language would overwhelm the mortal developer. In the case of unifying existing methods, we also had to be sensitive to the installed base. Make too many changes and we would confuse existing users; resist advancing the language and we would miss the opportunity to engage a much broader set of users and to make the language simpler. The UML definition strives to make the best trade-offs in each of these areas.

The UML effort started officially in October 1994 when Rumbaugh joined Booch at Rational. Our project's initial focus was the unification of the Booch and OMT methods. The version 0.8 draft of the Unified Method (as it was then called) was released in October 1995. Around the same time, Jacobson joined Rational and the scope of the UML project was expanded to incorporate OOSE. Our efforts resulted in the release of the UML version 0.9 documents in June 1996. Throughout 1996, we invited and received feedback from the general software engineering community. During this time, it also became clear that many software organizations saw the UML as strategic to their business. We established a UML consortium, with several organizations willing to dedicate resources to work toward a strong and complete UML definition. Those partners contributing to the UML 1.0 definition included Digital Equipment Corporation, Hewlett-Packard, I-Logix, Intellicorp, IBM, ICON Computing, MCI Systemhouse, Microsoft, Oracle, Rational, Texas Instruments, and Unisys. This collaboration resulted in the UML 1.0, a modeling language that was well-defined, expressive, powerful, and applicable to a wide spectrum of problem domains. Mary Loomis was instrumental in convincing the Object Management Group (OMG) to issue a request for proposals (RFP) for a standard modeling language. UML 1.0 was offered for standardization to the OMG in January 1997 in response to their RFP.

Between January 1997 and July 1997, the original group of partners was expanded to include virtually all of the other submitters and contributors of the original OMG response, including Andersen Consulting, Ericsson, ObjecTime Limited, Platinum Technology, PTech, Reich Technologies, Softeam, Sterling Software, and Taskon. A semantics task force was formed, led by Cris Kobryn of MCI Systemhouse and administered by Ed Eykholt of Rational, to formalize the UML specification and to integrate the UML with other standardization efforts. A revised version of the UML (version 1.1) was offered to the OMG for standardization in July 1997. In September 1997, this version was accepted by the OMG Analysis and Design Task Force (ADTF) and the OMG Architecture Board and then put up for vote by the entire OMG membership. UML 1.1 was adopted by the OMG on November 14, 1997.

For several years, UML was maintained by an OMG Revision Task Force, which produced versions 1.3, 1.4, and 1.5. From 2000 to 2003, a new and expanded set of partners produced an updated specification of UML, version 2.0. This version was reviewed for a year by a Finalization Task Force (FTF) headed by Bran Selic of IBM, and the official version of UML 2.0 was adopted by the OMG in early 2005. UML 2.0 is a major revision of UML 1 and includes a large number of additional features. In addition, many changes were made to previous constructs based on experience with the previous version.It would be a major historical research project to reconstruct a complete list of sources, and even more difficult to identify the many predecessors who have influenced UML in manners large and small. As with all scientific research and engineering practice, UML is a small hill atop a large mountain of previous experience.


Customer Reviews

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Most helpful customer reviews

2 of 2 people found the following review helpful By Francois Trahan on Sept. 16 2009
Format: Hardcover
Don't be fooled, I'm not a newbie angry for not understanding something. I actually teach UML as part of classes I give as a consultant. I was looking for a reference book to suggest to groups of software engineers and I would never suggest a book I have not read.

Turns out I've found many two pages tutorials on the web that were much more complete and interesting than this book.

UML is about making large concepts intelligible and this book is sticking to relations a two year old can figure out in a snap. Worst, UML is a graphical language and this book sports plenty of textual descriptions of what a graphic element should look like. Imagine how inefficient (and boring) it is two spend two paragraphs explaining a line with a diamond and bits of text instead of just drawing the thing.

The fact that no example in the book goes past a two cent situation means that even after reading the whole thing form cover to cover, students or inexperienced programmer have not a single idea in their mind of what a UML diagram can look like, let aside a positive feeling of it's power and uses.

There's not even a single table listing the basic features of the language side by side and many a time, you read about a specific type of diagram and end up getting pretty much half of the information while the rest is scattered around in some parts of a discussion about something else absolutely not related.

As many other books on the subject, this book claims to be about system modeling while it actually covers pretty much nothing else than class diagrams. If you're looking into making use of UML to describe system architecture and service definition (let alone real-time or embedded application) you've been fooled again, but this time, a little more than usual.
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1 of 1 people found the following review helpful By James Ramsey on March 17 2004
Format: Hardcover
I have read both the User's Guide and the Reference Manual, which are generally intended to be bought as a pair. The Reference Manual is better organized, and is an invaluable resource for anyone who does a lot of UML modeling.
This book, however, is just a dump of UML information, fairly ecletic but not always in sufficient depth. It is good information, but the poor organization makes it useless after the initial reading.
If you are looking to learn UML, it IS possible to get a good feel for it from this book. However, something like "UML for Dummies" will also give you a good introduction, at a better price. If you will be modeling a lot, and want a deep understanding of UML, then it would be wiser to buy the Reference Manual instead.
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Format: Hardcover
The guys who essentially invented UML wrote this book-the infamous 'Three Amigos'. You would think that given that their book is about design they would have taken the time to make it visually appealing. Needless to say I should have judged this book by its cover. It sucked.
To start with each chapter begins with an analogy on how building a house is like software design. When I started the book the analogy seemed appropriate, by chapter 31 I wanted to break someone's nose.
Outside of the horrible cover design and redundant analogies the book is poorly organized. The book constantly refers to terms that it doesn't expound upon or for that matter define anywhere. For example, the authors refer over and over again to CRC Cards, but they're not defined anywhere in the book. What's worse, however, are the partially defined lists. For example the authors go to the trouble of informing you that there are four kinds of events in UML, but only bother to discuss three of them. Maddening!
The chapters don't really follow a logical flow. The Three Amigos constantly skip backwards and forward throughout the book. In the side margins, almost as an afterthought they have included chapter references in blue type. If you follow the chapter references you're reading all over the place. Moreover, and perhaps most annoying of all is when they keep referring to concepts that they cover later in the book. I was paranoid that I day dreamed my way over the whole concept of the state machine until I discovered it nested away in chapter 21.
Last but not least, the book is poorly written. Seriously, if you have to read this piece of crap you better brew a big pot of coffee. Technical literature can be a bit dry at times, but this is an exceptionally horrid piece of work.
Death to the Three Amigos and a pox on Rational for hiring them!
Don't buy this book.
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Format: Hardcover
I didn't know much about UML when I started reading this book and feel that it's given me some good grounding. But I suspect that there are probably books on the subject that are specifically aimed at introducing it to beginners and do a more effective job of that.
This is more of a reference book. It's well-cross referenced and I find it much more helpful for looking up individual terms, diagram types, etc. than when I read it front-to-back.
What I was hoping to gain from the book is a better sense of when, where, and why you would be creating the different diagrams and how it all fits into a development life-cycle. Evidently, this kind of information is left to other "Three Amigos" books.
I'm inclined to agree with other reviewers who feel that this book is "wordier" than it really needs to be. They repeatedly use an analogy to building a house that gets nearly as tiresome as it is obvious. But if you find UML to be useful, necessary, or just intersting, this would be a good book to have in your library.
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