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Use Case Modeling [Paperback]

Kurt Bittner , Ian Spence
5.0 out of 5 stars  See all reviews (4 customer reviews)
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Book Description

Aug. 20 2002 0201709139 978-0201709131 1
A guide to building upon existing requirements-gathering skills and better leveraging the significant power of use cases.

A ready reference for the use case practitioner.
Reviews the fundamentals of use cases, and then explores the details to becoming writing better use cases.
Based on real-world issues, and how project teams overcame them. Kurt Bittner works for Rational Software as a member of the Rational Unified Process development team. With nearly twenty years in the software industry, his experience covers the complete development life cycle, including analysis, design, development, and project management. He has worked in a number of industries including financial services, manufacturing, and software. Ian Spence also works for Rational Software.
Audience-
The whole gamut of those who are impacted by use cases- customers, project managers, analysts, developers, testers, and anyone else who wants to better understand use cases.

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Use Case Modeling + Writing Effective Use Cases
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Product Description

From the Inside Flap

Why Bother with Use Cases?WHAT ARE "USE CASES" ALL ABOUT?

In a world where it seems we already have too much to do, and too manythings to think about, it seems the last thing we need is something new thatwe have to learn. As Eric Sevareid observed, the chief cause of problems issolutions.

But use cases do solve a problem with requirements: with strict declarativerequirements it's hard to describe steps and sequences of events. To seewhy, let's consider a simple example:

Example

Some requirements that must be satisfied by an automated teller system:

  1. The system shall allow customers to withdraw cash from their accounts.
  2. The system shall ensure that the customer's account is never overdrawn.
  3. If the customer attempts to overdraw the account, the system will allow the account to be overdrawn, up to a specified amount, for a transaction fee.
  4. If the customer is using an automated teller machine (ATM) that is owned by a
  5. financial institution other than the one to which the account belongs, an additional fee will be charged to the account.

Simple enough, you say. Or is it?

In what order should these things be done? Does it matter? If the ATM is not one that is owned by the customer's financial institution, should the ATM usage fee be charged before or after checking for overdraft? If the customer's account balance is less than the ATM usage fee, charging the ATM usage fee before checking for overdraft will automatically result in an overdraft charge being applied, even if the customer decides to cancel the transaction. Is this the right behavior? With only declarative requirements, which is all that many projects have, it's impossible to say.

Use cases, stated simply, allow description of sequences of events that,taken together, lead to a system doing something useful. As simple as thissounds, this is important. When confronted only with a pile of requirements, it's often impossible to make sense of what the authors of the requirements really wanted the system to do. In the preceding example, use cases reduce theambiguity of the requirements by specifying exactly when and under whatconditions certain behavior occurs; as such, the sequence of the behaviors canbe regarded as a requirement. Use cases are particularly well suited to capturing these kind of requirements. Although this may sound simple, the fact is that conventional requirement capture approaches, with their emphasis ondeclarative requirements and "shall" statements, completely fail to capturethe dynamics of the system's behavior. Use cases are a simple yet powerfulway to express the behavior of the system in way that all stakeholders caneasily understand.

But, like anything, use cases come with their own problems, and as useful as they are, they can be misapplied. The result is something that is as bad, if not worse, than the original problem. Therein lies the central theme of this book--how to utilize use cases effectively without creating a greater problem than the one you started with.

WHO SHOULD BE INTERESTED IN USE CASES?

The short answer to this question is "just about everyone," or at least everyoneinvolved in some aspect of delivering a system that satisfies the needs ofthe customer. To be more specific about who should be interested in use cases,the following roles can benefit from the use-case technique of describing systembehavior:

  • Customers, who need to be sure that the system that is getting built is the one that they want
  • Managers, who need to have an overall understanding of what the system will do in order to effectively plan and monitor the project
  • Analysts, who need to describe and document what the system is going to do
  • Developers, who need to understand what the system needs to do in order to develop it
  • Testers, who need to know what the system is supposed to do so that they can verify that it does it
  • Technical writers, who need to know what the system is supposed to so that they can describe it
  • User-experience designers, who need to understand the users' goals and how they will use the system to achieve these goals.
  • And anyone else who wants to better understand what needs to be built before it is actually constructed

HOW TO READ THIS BOOK

This book is fundamentally about creating use-case models and, more importantly,about writing detailed descriptions of use cases. To remain focused onthis task, we have intentionally left out the parts of the project life cycle that use the use cases but are not directly involved in writing them. These areas include user-interface design, analysis, design, technical writing, testing, and project management. Other authors have covered a number of these areas adequately, and we felt that you, the reader, were best served if we focused narrowly on the use cases themselves. We hope you will agree.This book is intended to be a ready reference for the practitioner, the personwho is actually doing the work and grappling with the unique problemsof working with use cases. It can certainly be read cover to cover, but the realintent behind the book is to provide you with something that can continue toadd value after the first reading, providing you with a "mentor" at your fingertips. The topics presented in the book have arisen from working withcountless project teams who grappled with the same issues facing you.

The book is divided into two parts. In Part I, Getting Started with Use-Case Modeling, we introduce the basics concepts of use-case modeling thatyou will need to understand in order to be effective using use cases. We conclude Part I with a description of an excellent way to get started with usecases: with a workshop.

  • The first chapter, A Brief Introduction to Use-Case Modeling, provides practical background for people who are unfamiliar with use cases, or for people who have read other books and articles and still find themselves wrestling with the basic ideas. The purpose of the chapter is to provide a brief overview of the use-case approach without getting into a lot of formal details.
  • The second chapter, Fundamentals of Use-Case Modeling, presents the foundations underlying the use-case modeling technique. The concepts presented here will provide the basis for the subsequent chapters in the book.
  • The third chapter, Establishing the Vision, provides the essential tools for determining the business problem to be solved, for identifying the stakeholders in the solution, and for deciding what the system should do for those stakeholders to solve the business problem. This information is essential if we are to define the right solution when we develop our use-case model.
  • The fourth chapter, Finding Actors and Use Cases, describes the process and subtleties of identifying the key elements of the use-case model. The purpose of this content is to help you through the sometimes-confusing task of getting started by providing a sound understanding of the basic concepts of actors and use cases.
  • The fifth chapter, Getting Started with a Use-Case Modeling Workshop, describes the practicalities of getting started using use cases, including how to run a use-case workshop and how to deal with the practical details of starting to work with use cases.

In Part II, Writing and Reviewing Use-Case Descriptions, we explore thefiner details of working with use cases, including the anatomy of a use case,how to write use-case descriptions (instead of the simple but incompletedescriptions presented in Part I), and what it means to work with use cases inpractice. In these chapters, we explore in-depth how to write detailed use-casedescriptions.

  • The sixth chapter, The Life Cycle of a Use Case, describes the transitions that a use case undergoes as it evolves from concept to complete description. This chapter establishes context for the remaining chapters and places the content of Part I into a larger context.
  • The seventh chapter, The Structure and Contents of a Use Case, describes the various constituent parts of a use case--the basic flow, preconditions, postconditions, and the alternate flows, as well as related topics.
  • The eighth chapter, Writing Use-Case Descriptions: An Overview, describes the objectives and challenges related to writing detailed descriptions of use cases and presents strategies for successfully mastering this challenging task.
  • The ninth chapter, Writing Use-Case Descriptions: Revisited, discusses the mechanics of how to go about writing use-case descriptions, how to handle details, and how to structure the descriptions for readability. This is done using an evolving example in which a variety of techniques are progressively and systematically applied to improve the quality of the use-case description.
  • The tenth chapter, Here There Be Dragons, describes the problems that most teams encounter when using relationships between use cases (specifically the include, extend, and generalization relationships) and relationships between actors.
  • The eleventh chapter, Reviewing Use Cases, describes how to organize and conduct reviews of the use-case model, including a summary of areas where particular focus is needed.
  • The final chapter, Chapter 12, Wrapping Up, touches on a number of topics related to how use cases are used in the larger context of the project, bringing our journey into the world of use cases to a close. In doing so, we provide the

ACKNOWLEDGMENTS

We have had the pleasure over the years to work with many colleagues andcustomers who have helped shape the views that are presented here. A fullenumeration of all of these people would be impossible, but we find ourselvesespecially indebted to a number of our colleagues for contributing to ourviews on use cases. We are in great debt to Ivar Jacobson, who originated theconcepts of use-case modeling and initially defined their role in the modernsoftware development process, for his support and encouragement on thisproject. We are also indebted to our colleague Dean Leffingwell for his workdefining the role of use cases and traditional requirements-managementapproaches. We would also like to thank Bryon Baker, Chris Littlejohns,Anthony Kesterton, Gary Evans, Laurent Mondamert, Peter Eeles, Brian Kerr,and Susan August for their insightful suggestions at various points in thelong evolution of this book. Special thanks go to Douglas Bush and Ida Audehfor their assistance in helping us to write clearly and concisely. We would alsolike to thank the many technical consultants at Rational whose experiencesand questions have helped to shape this book. Finally, we would like to thankthe customers with whom we and these consultants have worked, since theirexperiences and questions have ultimately made us realize that this book hasbeen sorely needed. To all these people goes a great share of the credit for this book; any flaws or shortcomings are exclusively our own.

Kurt Bittner and Ian Spence
April, 2002



0201709139P08062002

From the Back Cover

Developers who effectively employ use cases deliver better applications--on time and under budget. The concept behind use cases is perhaps as old as software itself; they express the behavior of systems in terms of how users will ultimately interact with them. Despite this inherent simplicity, the use case approach is frequently misapplied, resulting in functional requirements that are confusing, cumbersome, or redundant.

In Use Case Modeling, experienced use case practitioners Kurt Bittner and Ian Spence share their tips and tricks for applying use cases in various environments. They delve into all aspects of use case modeling and management, demonstrating how development teams can capitalize on the approach's simplicity when modeling complex systems.

In this ready reference, readers will discover how to

  • Introduce a development team to use cases and implement a use case approach
  • Identify the key elements of a use case model, including actors; and the components of a use case, including basic flow, preconditions, post-conditions, sub-flows, and alternate flows
  • Master the objectives and challenges of creating detailed descriptions of use cases
  • Improve their descriptions' readability and consistency
  • Prevent and remedy common problems arising from the misuse of include, extend, and generalization use case relationships.
  • Organize and conduct a review of a use case model to realize the best possible approach

The book draws extensively on best practices developed at Rational Software Corporation, and presents real-life examples to illustrate the considerable power of use case modeling. As such, Use Case Modeling is sure to give development teams the tools they need to translate vision and creativity into systems that satisfy the most rigorous user demands.



0201709139B08062002

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Most helpful customer reviews
5.0 out of 5 stars The GOLD STANDARD of Use Case Texts Nov. 13 2002
Format:Paperback
Given the many misconceptions in the software community regarding what use cases are, and how to develop and apply them, Bittner and Spence present a clear, pragmatic approach to use cases that focuses on the process of synthesizing use cases rather than simply the analytics of syntax, semantics, and diagrams. More than ample time is devoted to use case structure, syntax, semantics, and style. A significant percentage of the book addresses the process and logistical issues associated with team development of a use case model. Comprehensive process discussions are included regarding discovery of actors and use cases,preparing and conducting a use case workshop, finding use case mentors, building a representative team of stakeholders, reviewing use cases, and applying use cases across the lifecycle.
Chapter 10, Here There Be Dragons, will strike a chord with every experienced use case practitioner. As a consultant that develops and reviews use case models for customers, I found this chapter to be on the money. Bittner and Spence identify many improperly-used modeling techniques that often plague organizations during their initial adoption of use cases. Specifically, the sections regarding overuse of extend, include, and generalization relationships deserves much attention.
The Use Case syntax and semantics presented in Bittner and Spence's book is based on the foundational work developed by Ivar Jacobson. Straightforward and useful examples are presented for all of the use case artifacts discussed in the book.
Read more ›
Was this review helpful to you?
5.0 out of 5 stars Amazing March 9 2004
Format:Paperback
No where have I found such informative and correct information on use case modeling, this book can be read from start to finish by the complete newbie and then keep it as a biblical reference whilst working with projects.
I was completely mysified about many aspects of Use Case and now I know when to apply it, and when not to, how to apply it and how not to and if I do not know, I can always refer back to this book!
The forward by Ivar Jacobson assures good content to follow, the introduction to Use Case modeling left me stunned with all the stuff that I did not know or had not considered! The connection to requirements are explained and even help on how to group requirements as well as tracebility from them to the Use Case.
The writing style is something to be admired, something I have taken as the honest truth on how to write proper use case.
If you have many questions about use case left unanswered, this book has them all.
Was this review helpful to you?
5.0 out of 5 stars great book written by very experienced people Oct. 3 2003
Format:Paperback
I bought this book after attending a conference where one of the Authors of this book had a presentation. I was so impressed by his presentation that I immediately bought his book. It was well spent money for sure.
This book not only explains what use cases are and how to model them in a very clear and easy to understand way, it also reflects on bad and good practices when writing use cases. I have been writing use cases in several projects and have had a lot of help from this book. I also frequently use the book as a reference when participating in reviews of use cases.
This book is my guide in the early stages of each project when working with use cases.
You can read it quickly and it will give you lots of advise.
Was this review helpful to you?
5.0 out of 5 stars Brilliant Book Oct. 4 2002
Format:Paperback
This book is just brilliant. Easy to read and filled with gems of advice. I highly recommend this book for beginners, intermediate and even advanced readers.Gives the theory and applies it an ATM case study to illustrate all the concepts.
If there is one book that you should own on use cases, this is THE one.
Was this review helpful to you?
Most Helpful Customer Reviews on Amazon.com (beta)
Amazon.com: 4.4 out of 5 stars  16 reviews
38 of 38 people found the following review helpful
5.0 out of 5 stars The GOLD STANDARD of Use Case Texts Nov. 13 2002
By James R. Gillespie - Published on Amazon.com
Format:Paperback
Given the many misconceptions in the software community regarding what use cases are, and how to develop and apply them, Bittner and Spence present a clear, pragmatic approach to use cases that focuses on the process of synthesizing use cases rather than simply the analytics of syntax, semantics, and diagrams. More than ample time is devoted to use case structure, syntax, semantics, and style. A significant percentage of the book addresses the process and logistical issues associated with team development of a use case model. Comprehensive process discussions are included regarding discovery of actors and use cases,preparing and conducting a use case workshop, finding use case mentors, building a representative team of stakeholders, reviewing use cases, and applying use cases across the lifecycle.
Chapter 10, Here There Be Dragons, will strike a chord with every experienced use case practitioner. As a consultant that develops and reviews use case models for customers, I found this chapter to be on the money. Bittner and Spence identify many improperly-used modeling techniques that often plague organizations during their initial adoption of use cases. Specifically, the sections regarding overuse of extend, include, and generalization relationships deserves much attention.
The Use Case syntax and semantics presented in Bittner and Spence's book is based on the foundational work developed by Ivar Jacobson. Straightforward and useful examples are presented for all of the use case artifacts discussed in the book. Unlike other use case texts that emphasize use case structure, form, and analytically oriented techniques, this book presents sufficient attention to notational elements and invests significantly more in describing pragmatic activities focused on synthesizing use cases that can be effectively leveraged across the lifecycle.
I have recommended Use Case Modeling to my clients as both an introductory as reference book for any project using use cases. The writing style lends itself to the entire spectrum of stakeholders involved in use case development from end users, architects, project managers, and developers.
If you are currently employing use cases, or are considering applying use cases on a project, this book is a MUST HAVE. It de-mystifies much of the confusion surrounding the practical application of use cases, and should be put on par with the early Object Oriented texts of Booch ,Rumbaugh, and Jacobson.
5 of 5 people found the following review helpful
5.0 out of 5 stars Amazing March 9 2004
By Mr. I. Warwick - Published on Amazon.com
Format:Paperback
No where have I found such informative and correct information on use case modeling, this book can be read from start to finish by the complete newbie and then keep it as a biblical reference whilst working with projects.
I was completely mysified about many aspects of Use Case and now I know when to apply it, and when not to, how to apply it and how not to and if I do not know, I can always refer back to this book!
The forward by Ivar Jacobson assures good content to follow, the introduction to Use Case modeling left me stunned with all the stuff that I did not know or had not considered! The connection to requirements are explained and even help on how to group requirements as well as tracebility from them to the Use Case.
The writing style is something to be admired, something I have taken as the honest truth on how to write proper use case.
If you have many questions about use case left unanswered, this book has them all.
4 of 4 people found the following review helpful
5.0 out of 5 stars great book written by very experienced people Oct. 3 2003
By Andreas Bjärlestam - Published on Amazon.com
Format:Paperback
I bought this book after attending a conference where one of the Authors of this book had a presentation. I was so impressed by his presentation that I immediately bought his book. It was well spent money for sure.
This book not only explains what use cases are and how to model them in a very clear and easy to understand way, it also reflects on bad and good practices when writing use cases. I have been writing use cases in several projects and have had a lot of help from this book. I also frequently use the book as a reference when participating in reviews of use cases.
This book is my guide in the early stages of each project when working with use cases.
You can read it quickly and it will give you lots of advise.
4 of 4 people found the following review helpful
5.0 out of 5 stars The complete book on use case modeling Jan. 15 2005
By T. Karlsson - Published on Amazon.com
Format:Paperback
This book is a great one. It is an excellent discussion on use case modeling, and it covers all interesting issues and questions on use case modeling I have found in projects over the last five years. In a RUP project, this book can be used as "Use Case Guidelines" as is. It definitely will be the bible for use-case writers over the next two or three years.
5 of 6 people found the following review helpful
2.0 out of 5 stars great info - terrible editing July 20 2006
By James D. Mcalpin - Published on Amazon.com
Format:Paperback
This book came so highly recommended it seemed like a sure thing. And in fact, it has a wealth of info on use cases; I can certainly see it being a valuable reference for someone who is already an expert with use cases. For those with no previous exposure, however, it is a tiresome morass to wade through; so cluttered and muddled that finding the underlying meaning becomes a real challenge. This book could have been edited to 2/3rds the size, and been a far better book because of it. Was the editing staff on vacation?
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