_The Vampire in Lore and Legend_ by Roman Catholic priest Reverend Montague Summers is a republication of the book _The Vampire in Europe_ by Dover Press, a sequel to Summers' previous work on vampires. Montague Summers was a fascinating character whose opposition to the modern day skeptical rationalist is apparent in all his writings on folklore and the occult. Summers is best known for his writings on witchcraft, in which he took the extreme position of the medievalist, but also for his writings on vampires and werewolves. This book outlines the vampire legend as it appeared in various European nations relating this legend to the folklore and tradition of these countries. The profound learning of the author is revealed throughout, who provides original source material in many of the archaic languages of ancient Europe.
Summers begins by discussing the vampire in Greece and Rome. Here he mentions such classical writers as Pliny, as well as noting the vile influence of the wicked lamia. Summers also mentions the rites associated with All Soul's Day and the various events which ensued during that holy day. Summers also notes the importance of days associated with Saint Agnes' Eve and Saint Anne's day in folklore and legend. As a Roman Catholic priest, Summers frequently mentions the important role of the various saints in the formation of the faithful, as well as the relationship between the days associated with these saints and legends concerning the undead. Summers also turns his attention to ancient Rome, as well as noticing various events associated with the Greek Orthodox Church and its treatment of the dead. Following this discussion, Summers turns his attention to the vampire in England and Ireland. Here he mentions various saints, many of whom rose from the dead, as well as the rites of excommunication. Summers also mentions more modern day cases of vampirism in England as well. In addition, Summers mentions certain cases of vampirism as they occurred in France, Italy, and other Latin lands. After completing this discussion, Summers turns his attention to the vampire legend in Hungary and Czecho-slovakia. Here, Summers mentions further material from these lands on the vampire legend, as well as including an historical survey on the "manducation of the dead". Following this, Summers turns his attention to the vampire in modern Greece. Here, Summers notes the use of the word "vrykolakas" to describe the vampire (or originally believed as a word to describe the were-wolf, though later taken over by the vampire legend). Finally, Summers turns his attention to the vampire in Russia, Roumania, and Bulgaria. Again, he notes the presence of the vampire in these Eastern European lands and the growth of his legend.
Summers' work provides an excellent source and accounting of the vampire legend throughout Europe. Summers remains unequivocally opposed to the modernist and skeptical understanding which denies the reality of vampirism. Indeed, for Summers the vampire is very real and his legend is rooted in fact. The vampire is also closely related to witchcraft, and in his work Summers repeatedly emphasizes the fact that the vampire may spring forth from the mating of the Devil and a witch. Summers also notes that those who are excommunicated and die in such a state or who are suicides are more likely to become vampires. In addition, those who are were-wolves during their life are more likely to become vampires once dead. This book provides a fascinating accounting of the legend concerning the vampire and provides unique sources from the folklore of various European countries.