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Web Security Testing Cookbook: Systematic Techniques to Find Problems Fast Paperback – Oct 27 2008
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Systematic Techniques to Find Problems Fast
About the Author
Paco Hope is a Technical Manager at Cigital, Inc. and co-author of Mastering FreeBSD and OpenBSD Security (April 2005, O'Reilly, ISBN 0596006268). Mr. Hope has also published articles on Misuse and Abuse Cases and PKI. He has been invited to conferences to speak on topics such as software security re-quirements, web application security, and embedded system security. At Cigi-tal, he has served as a subject matter expert to MasterCard International for security policies and has assisted a Fortune 500 hospitality company in writ-ing software security policy. He also trains software developers and testers in the fundamentals of software security. In the gaming and mobile communica-tions industries he has advised several companies on software security. Mr. Hope majored in Computer Science and English at The College of William and Mary and received an M.S. in Computer Science from the University of Virginia.
Ben Walther is a consultant at Cigital and contributor to the Edit Cookies tool. He has a hand in both normal Quality Assurance and Software Security. Day to day, he designs and executes tests - and so he understands the need for simple recipes, in the hectic QA world. Yet he has also given talks on web ap-plication testing tools to members of the Open Web Application Security Pro-ject (OWASP). Through Cigital, he tests systems ranging from financial data processing to slot machines. Mr. Walther has a B.S. in Information Science from Cornell University.
Inside This Book(Learn More)
Most Helpful Customer Reviews on Amazon.com (beta)
The unfortunate problem with free tools in so many cases is lack documentation. This book fills that gap by showing you how to make good use of tools that you might have heard of that don't have good documentation on their application. Another barrier to effectively testing web applications with free tools is a general lack of knowledge about how the tools can be put together to perform good security tests. It's one thing to know that TamperData lets you bypass client-side checks. It's another thing to develop a good cross-site scripting test using TamperData. This book takes you beyond making good web application tests and helps you produce good security test cases.
The book divides material into three sections. The first section covers setting up tools and some of the basics concepts used to develop tests. The second section is about the different methods of bypassing client-side input validation via SQL injection, cross-site scripting, and manipulating hidden form fields. The third section is about the session, locating session identifiers, determining their predictability, and how to manipulate them. Each major section begins with relatively simple tasks and gradually builds to more complex tasks. Thus the first recipes are simple exercises that show what happens behind the scenes in web applications. The final recipes put many building blocks together into complex tasks that can form the basis of major web application security tests. The following is a listing and synopsis of each chapter:
Chapter 1, A little terminology and some important testing concepts that are referred to throughout the book.
Chapter 2, Installing Some Free Tools, includes an entire toolbox of free tools you can make use of. Information on each tool includes some basic instructions on where to find it, install it, and get it running.
Chapter 3, Basic Observation, teaches you the basics of observing your web application and testing the functionality of the system.
Chapter 4, Web-Oriented Data Encoding, shows how to encode and decode data in the various ways that web applications use it. In addition to encoding and decoding, you need to be able to eyeball encoded data and have some idea how it has been encoded.
Chapter 5, Tampering with Input, discusses the most important basic technique: malicious input. Discusses how you get it into your application and how you look at what's happening in the browser and what it's sending to the web application.
Chapter 6, Automated Bulk Scanning, shows you how to spider your application to find input points and pages, as well as ways to conduct batch tests on some specialized applications.
Chapter 7, Automating Specific Tasks with Curl, shows you a very good tool for building automated tests: Curl. First a a few simple ways of submitting batches of tests are examined. Complexity gradually builds to more difficult tasks such as retaining state when you log in and manipulating cookies, and culminates in the task of logging in on eBay.
Chapter 8, Automating with LibPerl, is focused on Perl and its LWP library. This chapter contains a set of specific techniques that you can use with Perl and the LWP library to perform security tests. These include uploading viruses to your application, using very long filenames, and parsing the responses from your application. It ends with a script that can edit a Wikipedia page.
Chapter 9, Seeking Design Flaws, discusses the unintentional interactions in your web application and how you can reveal them with good security tests. The recipes in this chapter focus on ways you can enable tests with testing programs. Topics includes predictable identifiers, weak randomness, and repeatable transactions.
Chapter 10, Attacking AJAX, shows you a lot of the top web attacks and how you can execute them building on earlier techniques discussed in the book. This book doesn't have much on AJAX itself, so you may need an additional text on the subject.
Chapter 11, Manipulating Sessions, discusses how to get behind the scenes of AJAX and test it both manually and automatically. The recipes intercept client-side requests to test server-side logic and vice versa, testing the client-side code by manipulating the server's responses.
Chapter 12, Multifaceted Tests, the final chapter, focuses on sessions, session management, and how security tests can attack it. It gives you several recipes that show you how to find, analyze, and ultimately test the strength of session management.
I am not a Web developer, but I really enjoyed reading WSTC. The book is not very long compared to TWAHH and WSTC, but it is very clear and well-written. The test or "recipe" format is easy to read quickly, and it makes for disciplined writing on the part of the authors. I really liked the use of all open tools, in contrast with Hacking Exposed: Web 2.0 (HEW2), a competing book. WSTC is well-organized, building on previous material in a coherent manner suitable for those with less experience in unit testing for Web apps.
I'd like to give special praise to chapter 4, Web-Oriented Data Encoding. As a Network Security Monitoring practitioner, I often encounter Web traffic encoded using the very methods described in chapter 4. This section helped me understand what I see, so I recommend it to those who aren't Web developers but who do need to understand Web traffic on the wire. I felt the same way about chapter 7, which explains the intricacies of using cURL.
I have no complaints regarding WSTC. I think it defines a powerful methodology for approaching Web security, and other authors might want to consider emulating its approach. Great work!
Thanks again Paco, excellent book. Please let us know of the second edition as I will definitely pre-order without a doubt.
The book is structured like the other "Cookbook" titles from O'Reilly. Each chapter has a series of "recipes" that describe a problem, present a solution, and have some discussion about the issue. It's unclear exactly who the target audience is.
Some of the recipes are very basic -- this is good if you've got very little experience working with tools like curl or wget, but not worth much if you've seen these and know how to read the man pages for these tools to find the flag you're looking for. Recipes like these lead me to believe that the audience for the book includes people who are very new to web technologies.
Other recipes are meaty enough -- there are several recipes that have page-long perl or bash scripts to automate (for example) the hunt for XSS vulnerabilities.
But then again, I can't see how a rookie web tester can possibly get through the book without a lot of head scratching. While vulnerabilities like cross-site scripting (XSS) and SQL injection are mentioned frequently, they are never defined, and their mechanism of operation is never clearly laid out. This leads me to believe that the target audience is people with at least an intermediate-level understanding of what these attacks mean, how they are performed, and what happens behind the scenes.
I was disappointed to see a couple of serious errors after only browsing through the recipes for an hour or so. For example, on page 90 the authors state that on Unix/Linux systems, filenames can contain slashes. This is incorrect: slashes are the only non-NUL character *not* allowed in a Linux filename. Verifying this fact only takes about two minutes of web searching.
Some recipes, like "5.8 Uploading Files with Malicious Names" are too shallow. They mention XSS and SQL injection, which are a concern. But they don't discuss directory traversal or code injection in any depth. There's a bear trap icon with a brief sidebar to hint at other possible problems, but this topic could have had another three or four recipes dedicated to it.
Some topics, like SQL Injection, are not sufficiently discussed. SQL injection, while an important web application security topic, is not covered directly by any particular recipe. It is mentioned in passing in a handful of other recipes, but it does not get the attention it deserves.
This *could* be a great book if they figured out the target audience a little better, got rid of the fluff recipes, got rid of some of the gratuitous (and useless) screen shots, and expanded the depth of coverage of some key topics. But it's not all bad -- it's relatively well structured, and I did learn a few new things. At $40 list price I'd pass, at the 40% or so discount on Amazon it's not a bad resource.
If you want to buy a better version of this book, see How to Break Web Software: Functional and Security Testing of Web Applications and Web Services. Book & CD. It's written with a similar formula, but is much better executed. (That text explains SQL injection in detail as well as how to perform SQL injection attacks, for example.)
I read this book for my Software Testing & Quality Assurance class and it was very informative. Throughout the course it helped me to solve hacking threats against web applications and prepared me for real world experiences. This is a must-have for anyone interested in web security!
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