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Roy Massie (Birmingham, AL United States)

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Religion And Morality: An Introduction
Religion And Morality: An Introduction
by Paul W. Diener
Edition: Paperback
Price: CDN$ 19.75
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1 of 1 people found the following review helpful
2.0 out of 5 stars Pluralism is shifting sand for morality, June 27 2004
In Religion and Morality, Diener seeks to promote the idea that religion and morality interact in complex ways that are overlooked by most religions and philosophical ethicists. His method involves recognizing the strengths and weaknesses of both the separability and inseparability views of religion and morality; he finds both wanting. He develops his alternative, relational view, primarily on the grounds that 1) recent advances in human knowledge emphasize the interrelatedness of all things and that 2) the survey he does throughout the book leads him to the conclusion that "neither religion nor morality is completely autonomous" (p73). He urges a civil dialogue among belief systems that acknowledges and utilizes the value of each to construct a common morality that can address the moral crises of our day, many of which relate to religious conflict. Diener believes the solution lies in cooperation and compromise among religious believers and secularists, not in spiritual transformation guided by a single belief system that is universal in scope and power.
There is a very logical progression of seven chapters in Religion and Morality and I found myself agreeing with many secondary points while being informed by the author's extensive knowledge of philosophical ethics. However, apart from these merits, the book suffers from two primary flaws. First, and most importantly, Diener's commitment to pluralism ignores the moral impact of doctrinal distinctives in religions. Specific doctrines lead to specific controversial moral actions even though general principles of morality are shared across religions. Second, Diener's choice of Biodiversity as the test application of his relational approach does not adequately exercise the differences among belief systems. Does any popular belief system say it doesn't care if species are lost? If not, then where is there a conflict to be resolved by the relational approach Diener feels is superior? More interesting applications could have been selected from sanctity of life or sexual behavior topics.
Contrary to Diener's relational thesis, religion and morality actually are inseparable. Morality depends upon religion with or without our awareness. As an illustration of the importance specific doctrines make in moral behavior consider the following scenario, which has all too many parallels in human history. A remote tribe holds a general moral principle 1) It is right to return property to it's rightful owner (do not steal or withhold). The tribe also holds a specific doctrine 2) deformed babies belong to the hippo god in the pond. Leading to the rational conclusion and action 3) Deformed babies are to be thrown into the pond to the hippo god when he appears. Almost anyone will agree with premise 1 in principle. Most will even agree with the pure logic of the conclusion. What is in dispute is the specific doctrinal belief in premise 2. Consider another case 1) It is morally good to oppose what is morally evil. 2) Non-Muslims are evil unbelievers who must be cut apart (Koran 8:12-13) therefore 3) Cut apart non-Muslims to promote goodness. Premise 2 is a fundamentalist position, but it's not just held by a small band of extremists when millions sympathize and support it. Again, specific doctrine is profound in cultural and personal ethics.
Diener does not explicitly disclose his personal belief system in one place, but it is clearly pluralistic with at least the following elements: Christian background, Taoism (which he favors repeatedly) and a high regard for natural law and Hegelian philosophy (p11,15,58,74,79,88,108). Chapter 1 defines religion broadly enough to include every popular worldview no matter how mutually contradictory. The Christian statement of proper religion (James 1:27) that encourages care for the needy and inner purity in the sight of God easily falls in line along with practically any other benevolent teaching, no matter its specific content.
Diener's pluralism ignores Christian doctrines that are profoundly important. In fact, his understanding of the central Christian doctrine is incorrect. On page 12 the central doctrine of Christianity is said to be the incarnation. This disagrees with the apostles Peter (Acts 2:24), Paul (Romans 10:9, 1 Corinthians 15:16ff) and the Lord Jesus (Luke 9:22) who all saw the resurrection as central. It is true there would be no resurrection without an incarnation, but moreover there would be no Christianity to proclaim the incarnation without the resurrection.
The Christian doctrines of the fall of man and the presence of real evil are not factors in Diener's pluralism. Diener briefly mentions the fall as a doctrine, but fails to take it seriously in his system. If men cannot reason about morality correctly apart from divine revelation, and a corrective divine revelation has been given, and there is real evil in the world misconstruing that message, then pluralism is a false spiritual teaching that should be challenged (Matthew 7:15). Pluralism overlooks these critical points when it insists upon the piecemeal syncretism of contradictory systems.
Most pluralists are actually exclusivists disguised in tolerant speech but Diener shows he has a mind of his own by encouraging pluralists to not be intellectually lazy in the name of tolerance; he genuinely wants to dialogue towards a better world. He is also correct in saying that reason alone will not lead to morality because worldview presuppositions are vital. This agrees with Jesus' great commandment that the spiritual heart and reasoning mind must both be engaged (Mark 12:33). I agree with Diener on many of these principles, but I think he fails to see the gravity of specific doctrines in moral choices.
If general moral principles, not specific doctrines, were the true basis for ethical progress, why not start the dialogue in favor of pluralistic ethics in an Islamic culture? They share the same general moral principles of other worldviews. Fortunately, thinking people, especially Diener, are too smart to even try that. His admirable ideal of kindness to adversaries actually flows from a distinctively Christian system of ethics, not a generalized plurality of conflicting worldviews and doctrines. Specific Christian doctrines have conditioned his morality, for the good, more than he seems to be aware. He shouldn't let pluralism taint the unique beliefs that birthed that higher morality.

Science & Christianity: Four Views
Science & Christianity: Four Views
by Robert F. Carlson
Edition: Paperback
Price: CDN$ 16.60
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3.0 out of 5 stars Dissappointing, June 1 2004
Science & Christianity: Four Views is a well-conceived attempt to cover the spectrum of Christian thought concerning the proper interaction of theology and science as realms of knowledge. These interacting viewpoint books are a great idea but they are difficult to pull-off because at least one viewpoint usually suffers. In this book, Creationism in particular is not well represented. Since this view is a historical cornerstone in the discussion, the overall book suffers as a result.
Frair and Patterson represent the Creationist viewpoint (young and old-earth views are essentially combined in this book). Their opening position statement, as expected, emphasizes the priority of an inerrant Scripture as the authority in human knowledge though they also encourage vigorous scientific inquiry and believe the two ultimately converge into one reality. But, their interactions with other viewpoints throughout the book tend to miss the point by avoiding any contrast/conflict. This avoidance hurts the value of the book and depth of their presentation.
Pond represents what is called the Independence view, which is often ignored in these discussions. Independence asserts that theology and science are two completely different areas of knowledge with no appreciable overlap in describing reality. If there is a question about the actual physical history of earth, it is resolved solely by science. Likewise, if there is a question of human spirituality it is resolved solely in the area of religion (Christianity for Pond). Pond says she considers scripture one more facet of information, which is to be considered along with church tradition (Episcopal in her case), and human reason depending upon the subject at hand. In the case of physical earth history, she sees no role for the Bible. She does not accept the notion that the scripture is inerrant and asks for a definition of the term (FYI Feinberg provides a great one in "Inerrancy" edited by Geisler). In place of inerrancy Ponds promotes the NOMA principle popularized by Stephen Jay Gould. Pond is eloquent for her position and interacts with other viewpoints in a consistent manner that provides some color to what is generally a bland book. Aside from the color she adds to the discussion, I find her view of scripture and science (along with NOMA) to be an elaborate cop-out that gives total precedence to science at every point in the discussion carrying any significance for discovering physical reality. Pond (and NOMA) seem to overlook the turbulent nature of scientific theories throughout history while discounting the possibility that the Bible has a divine author capable of giving a general but accurate description of physical reality that science is yet to fully discover.
The Qualified Agreement viewpoint is covered by Meyer and basically says that we should accept a highly interactive view of both scripture and science on a case-by-case basis where there are no hard and fast rules as to which will take precedence beforehand. After tracing the history of earlier intelligent design efforts by Paley and others, Meyer provides an onslaught of physical evidence from various fields of science. This chapter has so many well-known examples of design that the overall method (inference to the best explanation) does not receive the attention it deserves. Meyer is consistent throughout the book making most of his arguments from contemporary scientific evidence suggesting design, rather than from scripture. Meyer footnotes his evidence well and provides a veritable who's who of intelligent design authors such as Dembski, Behe, Ross and Denton.
Van Till provides the Partnership view, which says that science and Christian theology can go hand in hand without conflict. This view emphasizes a possible harmony between the two fields of knowledge and seeks to explain it with what Van Till calls the Robust Formation Economy (RFE). He prefers RFE to theistic evolution, which is more often used as a category for his viewpoint. The RFE basically says God created the universe as an amazing evolutionary machine that is capable of unfolding in the way modern evolutionary sciences say it does with no further intervention from God. Van Till feels this view ascribes more glory to God than the interventionist views held by Creationists or Qualified Agreement camps (Independence would seem to agree more with Van Till though it has no identifiable position as to interaction). Van Till's position is open to the critique (attempted but not adequately made in this book) that he is just playing games with words. Renaming deism to RFE doesn't really help things very much. His position counters scripture in a number of areas that indicate God is actively involved in the daily workings of nature, not just the macro architect from billions of years ago. Partnership ends up being a cop-out theory like Independence, it's just dressed up with fancier words and ideas, but not strong arguments based upon theological and scientific data.
This is a mediocre book that had the potential to be excellent but did not achieve that goal. There actually aren't that many intermediate books available in the area of philosophy of science and Christianity, but this is one. If you just want one book in this area choose Three Views on Creation and Evolution by Moreland and Reynolds; it is somewhat better than this book.

The Postmodern World: Discerning the Times and the Spirit of Our Age
The Postmodern World: Discerning the Times and the Spirit of Our Age
by Millard J. Erickson
Edition: Paperback
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4.0 out of 5 stars Good survey of postmodern influences, May 28 2004
This book provides a good summary and overview of postmodern influences in the past four decades. Erickson writes with a very accessible style. If you have limited background with postmodern thought and would like a useful introduction from a Christian perspective, this is a good choice. I have appreciated Erickson's theological writings for some time and also like this book as a casual read that still provides sufficient analysis.
"The Postmodern World" may help you reflect upon your own influences. In reading it I found myself more influenced and accommodating of postmodern ideas than I had suspected. This is not all bad, but it does have to be kept in check and that is part of Erickson's point. Beyond this, he seeks to dismantle the more extreme forms of postmodernism by analyzing the work of Derrida (deconstructing traditional meaning in language), Foucault (power establishes truth), and Rorty (pragmatist - whatever works is true). It's not all critique though, Erickson lays out more coherent theories to counter these and shows how even the postmodern thinkers have to rest upon the more coherent theories they oppose to make their case at all.
While reading the book, I occasionally couldn't tell if Erickson was bothered by the less harmful effects of postmodernism (like casual dress in business and news telecasts that show the cameras and props, etc.) or just observing them. Usually, he was more clear in giving sound critiques with detailed examples of lowered university standards, sloppy truth handling in the courts, the decline of morality in television and similar effects that are undermining our society.
The last chapter of the book is a fascinating glimpse into the future of the evangelical church in light of postmodernism written from the perspective of someone living in the future and looking back. Erickson actually goes a little postmodern himself in the last chapter since it is brilliantly and entirely told from an individual's perspective. The practical ideas of how Christians can move forward accepting, but not compromising to, postmodernism given here alone are worth the purchase of the book.
To compliment this book with some more specific and practical responses to postmoderns objecting to the Christian faith, look at Paul Copan's "That's Just Your Interpretation", and "True for You, But Not For Me"

Charts Of Christian Theology & Doctrine
Charts Of Christian Theology & Doctrine
by H House
Edition: Paperback
Price: CDN$ 15.67
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4.0 out of 5 stars Helpful and handy, May 5 2004
I use this book alot to help get the big picture and basic cases for various theological views. The author does a good job of presenting the views of various systems. Most of the charts have the well known related scriptures and short arguments for and against the view.
I think it could be a little better if it had a detailed subject index in the back, but the table of contents is sufficient. It helps if the reader is familiar with the structure and topics of a systematic theology (prolegomena through eschatology). However, this is not the book for an depth study of any particular doctrine. It just helps you get the overall structure quickly. This is a good reference for the intermediate or early theology student. It's probably too terse for a true newcomer to theological studies but could be helpful soon after a little systematic study. This is not a criticism just something to be aware of before you purchase. It's a book of charts not detailed explanations.
For more meat get the Moody Handbook of Theology, by Pentecost, it's an excellent theology summary/introduction. It originated and explains some of the best charts in this chart book. One other thing - this chart book does not describe various church denominational teachings/differences at all. For that see Handbook of Denominations in the United States, by Mead.

Jesus Under Fire
Jesus Under Fire
by Zondervan
Edition: Paperback
Price: CDN$ 15.15
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5.0 out of 5 stars Brilliant response to the Jesus Seminar, April 24 2004
This review is from: Jesus Under Fire (Paperback)
I love this book. Some of the best evangelical scholars do careful and calculated work to respond to the shoddy fabrication of Jesus that the Jesus Seminar seems so proud of. Having spent time reviewing the Seminar's The Five Gospels and The Complete Gospels among some of their other works, I am more convinced now that what the scholars in Jesus Under Fire have done is not only called for, but right on target.
The Seminar is inconsistent in the application of its own criteria and even more shocking to me was the lack of direct scholarly references and argumentation to document their conclusions. Their assumptions and academic credentials seem to authoritatively seal the case in their minds. These are exactly the type of weaknesses Jesus Under Fire demonstrates in the Seminar's reconstruction of Jesus. Unlike the Seminar's translation and commentary, Jesus Under Fire is detailed, well argued and extensively footnoted. Amazon provides a table of contents and other reviewers have already summarized this excellent book so I won't recover that ground.
Among my favorite articles are Bock's "Live, Jive or Memorex" which has helped me in explaining the historical nature of the Bible to some of my doubting friends. I also love Geivett's "Is Jesus The Only Way?" which provides some original thoughts on how to approach our pluralistic society with the exclusive claims of Christ. McKnight's introduction to Jesus Studies was helpful to me as I approached this arena. All of the articles are excellent.
With the increasing media coverage of the Jesus Seminar this is an important resource for biblical Christians who are thoughtful in their approach to the gospels. The Jesus Seminar may be here for a long haul, but so are the responses presented in this great book.

Five Views On Apologetics: Counterpoints
Five Views On Apologetics: Counterpoints
by Steven Cowan
Edition: Paperback
Price: CDN$ 15.67
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4.0 out of 5 stars An advance in apologetics, but not for the novice, Dec 30 2003
I am a seminary student and I recently had the privilege of taking a course in apologetics methods taught by the editor of this book, Dr. Steve Cowan. Steve is a fine man of God and a true expert in this area of comparing apologetics methods/religious epistemology. The contents of the book have been outlined well in other reviews so I won't re-hash those. There are a few points worth noting about this book and its topic.
1. This is not a book for someone looking for apologetics answers to use in their witnessing. This is a scholarly book co-authored by some of the most powerful scholars in evangelical Christianity today. The dialog is mostly theological/philosophical and can be hard to follow. Each of the scholars only has a few pages to sketch the main contours of their actual apologetic. The rest of their writing concerns the theoretical framework for that apologetic. This is expected as long as you understand the purpose of the book is to discuss meta-apologetics or "how we establish a framework for how we do apologetics." Some commercial book reviews seem to under-emphasize or miss this point and it is important since it could be a disappointment to someone just starting in their apologetics ministry. You may want to do some study in the apologetics topic of Faith and Reason before tackling this book. J.P. Moreland's "Love Your God With All Your Mind" is a good starter on Faith and Reason.
2. The debate over apologetic methodology primarily concerns positive case apologetics where the Christian is seeking a broad method for advancing the positive case in favor of Christianity, as opposed to answering or defending against objections to the faith. Defending against specific objections almost always takes on a presuppositional tone where the apologist looks for underlying assumptions, fallacies or implications in the objection that weaken its effectiveness. This book is not about mounting this type of defense, but rather, how we should architect an effective positive case in favor of Christian truth claims. There is some cross-over of course, but it is helpful to realize this about the book as you read it. This high level point is assumed, but not often made within the book itself.
3. There is a significant convergence of thought that comes out within the interaction between the five panelists. There are certainly some areas of disagreement, and a few sparks fly (!) but overall, the panel finds more common ground than has traditionally been the case. All of the panelists are respectful and constructive toward one another. In the Conclusion, Dr. Cowan outlines 6 points of commonality. For example, presuppositional apologist John Frame agrees to the existence of common epistemological ground with unbelievers. Traditionally, the presuppositional view would not have conceded a point like this, but Frame shows he is his own scholar in many ways by also presenting an approach to help resolve the perennial complaint about obvious circularity in the presuppositional method. The value of evidences and arguments was also agreed to among all the writers but as with most things it is a question of degree and emphasis.
4. Study of apologetic methodology is useful theoretical background for those who are called to apologetic ministry, but I for one am glad to see some of the common ground emerging after decades of theoretical discussion, writing and debate. Let's not get hung up here a lot longer, there's much Kingdom work to be done. I fear encouraging new apologists to commitment into one technical method or another can easily detract valuable resources from more practical, and yes Biblical, efforts.
This is a very good book on what I found to be a very challenging topic. This book is unique in its bringing together leading proponents of each apologetic approach. Another good book on this topic is Faith Has Its Reasons by Boa and Bowman. It does not have the benefit of the exchanges between leading experts that Five Views provides, but it does have tremendous depth as a resource for the history of apologists, their methods and practical conversational examples for each approach.

The Moody Handbook of Theology
The Moody Handbook of Theology
by Paul Enns
Edition: Hardcover
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5 of 5 people found the following review helpful
5.0 out of 5 stars An outstanding theology resource, Dec 30 2003
This is a well written and well organized reference on the major branches of Christian theology. It is written from a Protestant/evangelical perspective but still gives adequate treatment to many other views including Roman Catholicism, liberal theologies and significant historical positions. Includes dozens of useful charts, some of which I have seen reprinted in other theology texts.
I particularly like the way the author develops the various layers of theological work starting with exegesis and biblical theology as the underpinning for systematics, dogmatics then contemporary etc. These relationships were not clear to me until I saw them in this book.
If you study theology to any degree, and especially if you are just starting to study it, this is dollar for dollar one of the best books you can invest in. Each topic is treated briefly but with sufficent depth to clarify the various views to help make further study fruitful. There are many lists of other works in the chapter end notes - also has a good subject index. I love this book and expect to continue using it often.

The Second Coming of the Church
The Second Coming of the Church
by George Barna
Edition: Paperback
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4.0 out of 5 stars Prematurely correct about where the church will be, Dec 29 2003
Barna lays out a multi-faceted vision of where the church will need to go in order to remain relevant in our ever-shfiting culture. He never questions the staying power of the "unsinkable true Church" but strongly implicates the inability of the church to reproject the timeless message in new and relevant modes. He lays the responsibility upon the leadership of the church. Pastors are overworked and wearing too many hats, some of which they aren't gifted or trained for.
Much of the book is reminiscent of the 1990's vision-shaping management movement with its emphasis on mission statements and dynamic leader identification and training. There is certainly truth to be found in this, but the business world has learned through hard knocks that crisp execution can make up for second rate vision since business is graded on a Bell curve - the lesson may not be useful to the church, it certainly is murky in a theological sense.
In 2003, Barna is talking about Strategic Sources of Influence (SSI) like the Internet and TV, etc. as the place needing emphasis. He feels this book is still his most important, but it wasn't well received/implemented (though I think some of the church growth movement has taken it to heart).
One of the problems the book has, and this is somewhat unfair to judge in hindsight, is that from the beginning it describes how our culture re-invents itself every 3-5 years. The book then builds around that premise as if it is deeply true and significant for minsitry on all fronts. That may be true at the superficial pop culture level and media/technology outlets, but I don't think individuals literally revamp their deeply held worldview assumptions that often. Modernism and post modern relativism/pluralism are the patterns we will have for decades to come; they will just be in different clothing from time to time. I was disappointed Barna didn't stress pure apologetics more as this seemed to be a key, unstated assumption in many of his ministry strategies.
It's still a very good book, even today, and has influenced my thinking quite a bit. The book is more about when and why we should change the church than what and how although there is some detail on growing leadership.

Believer's Bible Commentary
Believer's Bible Commentary
by William MacDonald
Edition: Hardcover
Price: CDN$ 27.58
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4.0 out of 5 stars Good choice for general purpose commentary, Dec 29 2003
I have used this commentary for years and I own many others. It is well written and tends to stay close to the Bible with only minimal departures. I am a seminary student so I study different theological systems. This is not a technical or advanced commentary. It is very suitable for anyone trying to understand a particular set of verses. In some cases it goes verse by verse, but in the Old Testament especially it is often paragraph to paragraph. This works out well for most uses.
McFarland is a mainstream evangelical interpreter of the Bible. He takes the Bible very literally - commenting from a dispensational, pre-millennial theology perspective. This is the perspective of the Left Behind series of books. If you are Baptist, Pentecostal or from a similar congregational denomination you will probably be very comfortable with this commentary; it likely fits the teaching of your church very well. If you only plan to buy one full Bible commentary for your family this is a good choice.
Presbyterian, Lutheran and other Reformed backgrounds may want to consider something else if you plan to use it as a teaching resource. Though this is still a useful commentary on the key tenets of the faith, some important secondary doctrines do not agree with a Reformed view. Matthew Henry of course is always a great choice but he is by no means as easy to read or contemporary as this much newer commentary.

Bones of Contention: A Creationist Assessment of Human Fossils
Bones of Contention: A Creationist Assessment of Human Fossils
by Marvin L. Lubenow
Edition: Paperback
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2 of 3 people found the following review helpful
4.0 out of 5 stars Unique critique of famous fossils; but slightly disorganized, Dec 29 2003
Despite the pronouncements of naturalists that evolution has clearly won the war of origins, Christian creationists are growing in their ability to bring new perspectives to the evidence involved in the debate. Marvin Lubenow is one such young-earth creationist. In an era with much important writing (and predictable controversy) in the intelligent design arena, Lubenow offers back-to-the-basics analysis of the so-called "hominid fossils" that are the backbone of the human evolution story.
Lubenow challenges the naturalistic assumption that important fossils are few and far between. Instead, Lubenow considers a very wide range of human fossils and systematically explains how most of the well-known fossils such as Java Man, Homo erectus and Neanderthals have been misinterpreted by the entrenched, circular institution of evolutionary sciences as multimillion-year-old hominid ancestors. To take the case further, the author carefully compares the morphology of these fossils (anatomical shape of skulls, femurs, etc.) and other associated evidence, like fossilized tools, to show these important specimens are best described as modern humans.
The overall organization of the book is somewhat confusing, but there are multiple chapters that progress nicely within themselves. Chapters One through Four discuss the methods of analysis used by evolutionists and by Lubenow. The words of an evolutionist must be carefully considered because, "While he is certainly not telling the truth, in his own mind, he is not lying. He is speaking a different language, and the public has not learned the translation" (p. 32). Numerous quotations of technical evolutionary language that avoid problems in data are provided throughout the book.
In chapters Five through Seven, various well-known fossil hominids are scrutinized to demonstrate the "magic-wand" that evolutionists use to make various fossil finds conform to whatever evolutionary theory needs to be supported. In many cases, the public was subjected to a public relations campaign about the importance of the find even before mainstream evolutionists scrutinized the evidence. Further, human evolution can actually be falsified on its own criteria from the fossil evidence. "If Homo erectus people persisted long after they should have died out" or "if one could show fossils indistinguishable from modern humans existed long before they were supposed to exist...this also would falsify the concept" (p. 48). The book seeks to meet both of these challenges to devastate the theory of human evolution on both the timeline and anatomy of the fossil evidence.
Chapters Eight through Eleven detail the work of Eugene Dubois, whose Java Man find in 1891 became the hallmark transitional form of twentieth century evolution. Lubenow documents his reasons for being highly critical of the methods and even scientific ethics of Dubois relating to Java Man and his other finds. Despite the shoddy methods, "Java man was eventually accepted as our evolutionary ancestor in spite of the evidence because he could be interpreted to promote evolution" (p. 87).
The wildly varying fossil record of Homo erectus is analyzed in chapters Twelve and Thirteen and shown to cover an incredible range of dates even by the evolutionists' own estimates. The skull morphology and other non-circular evidence actually establish that Home erectus was fully human and left fossil specimens everywhere in the alleged timeline. Chapter Fourteen provides a young-earth creationist's explanation of the Ice Age that followed the Flood of Noah and how this event affected dietary and other health-related concerns to affect the morphology of human fossils, especially Neanderthal. Chapters Fifteen and Sixteen extensively document, and chart, how Homo habilis and other fossils actually falsify the evolutionists' account because of tools, footprints, and the recurring theme of "fossils that are indistinguishable from modern humans [that] can be traced all the way back to 4.5 m.y.a, according to the evolution time scale" (p. 178).
The final chapters touch on various subjects of interest to science and theology, such as ethics, the Big Bang, the TOLeDOT structure of Genesis, and the various evangelical views of origins. Lubenow concludes his work with an Appendix on the use of radiometric dating methods often so important to evolutionists. The Appendix is essentially a critique of the ten-year controversy concerning the 1967-69 KBS Tuff finds in Kenya. Radiometric dating is shown to be highly subjective, often inaccurate, and even irrelevant to evolutionists when it produces disagreeable results for evolutionary theory.
Marvin Lubenow has provided a technical book that is enjoyable to read and presents the fruit of decades invested doing original research and analysis on evolution. Most of the book is a critique of the methods of evolution, but there is also a considerable amount of new interpretation for the "Bones of Contention".

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