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D Glover (northern bc, canada)

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Old Man and the Sea
Old Man and the Sea
by Ernest Hemingway
Edition: Paperback
Price: CDN$ 10.31
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1 of 2 people found the following review helpful
5.0 out of 5 stars Hemmingway and the critics, Aug. 5 2010
This review is from: Old Man and the Sea (Paperback)
This is my favourite Hemmingway work. I read it once in school and then again just recently. Some reviewers here have discussed the struggle and the characters, still others have spoken of the book's merits. I will say it is classic Hemmingway, with solid, tangible descriptions without ornament. In this work, Hemmingway simultaneously acheives economy and artistry, something few can do and no one I know of can do better.

But is this a metaphor? I had some fun thinking of a metaphor that might have subconsciously possessed this book while the author was struggling through a difficult time in his vocation...

Of course Hemmingway is Santiago in some part as all writers must put something of themselves into their characters or they aren't real. Perhaps the sea is life, fishing is writing, the marlin is a story, and the sharks are the critics, and money from fishing is, well, money form writing. The writer sometimes has spells of bad luck and unfruitful attempts at creating a story. People say the writer is unlucky or their career is done. But the writer struggles faithfully, attempting to create successfully again, having tasted success and being an adept at his craft, believing it is only a matter of time before things go his way again. And he needs to eat. Then, on a day when one expects only the familiar bad luck, all the while trying to maintain optimism, the author gets a bite and the possibility seems grand. After a long, hard fought battle which brings the writer to the end of himself several times, a great story is completed. The author is exhausted but relieved that his block is over and his luck has changed. He knows in his bones this is a great work. But then, as he is bringing it to market, the critics start to circle and pick his work apart. The author and the work he has struggled so long to create are inseparable. During the writing, at times the manuscript seemed like his enemy, but now it is a part of him, and when the critics attack his work, they attack him. He attempts to defend his work, sacrificing himself for it's sake, but there are more critics than he can handle and he can't deal with them all at once. They shred the work he has fought so hard to produce and in the end, only the few who really knew him in his prime see the prize for what it is and their respect for him is renewed and deepened. But the author knows the work is good, no matter what people might say. He must be able to stand before his own conscience with honesty. And despite all the attacks and the fact that his work is shreaded, he can sleep at night again with the tired satisfaction that he has shaken off his bad luck and he can really create again.

Or perhaps the great fish is the literary work, the fight is the struggle to produce a truly great work, and the sharks are a combination of the personal demons the author fights and his own exacting editing process. He finishes, not with a fat and fleshy prize that will bring good money in the market, but with a bare bones work that maintains the enormity of the scope yet with the economy that results from flogging oneself until every line has nothing left but what is absolutely required to tell the story. In this work is not the triumph of a happy ending but the more mature triumph of survival in the midst of tragedy.

It's a fun exercise, but ultimately, I think the metaphor in this book is there only because all good stories reflect real life. I don't think Hemmingway tried to write about "real life" and needed a vehicle by which to do it. I think he wanted to write about an old man, a boy, a big fish, the sea, and a great struggle, and I think he did it very well. I think he did it so well, we all see ourselves in the old man and our lives in the sea.

The Good Man Jesus and the Scoundrel Christ
The Good Man Jesus and the Scoundrel Christ
by Philip Pullman
Edition: Hardcover
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8 of 28 people found the following review helpful
1.0 out of 5 stars A new retelling of an old revision, Aug. 5 2010
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In the interests of full disclosure, I will say from the start that I am a Christian who is committed to the historical veracity and authority of the New Testament account of the life of Jesus, the Christ. I realize that this commitment inherently colours my perspective on both the Bible and the book I am currently reviewing but of course no more than Philip Pullman's admitted and overt anti-theism colours his take on the first four books of the New Testament (and the rest for that matter). There is a popular belief out there that says atheists approach religion and the Bible on a rational, objective, neutral basis where as subscribers to the faith are subjective and irrational. The foolishness of this can be seen on the face of it. I readily admit that Christians don't embrace or examine their faith with pure rationalist logic...far from it. However they are not devoid of logic either and the atheist embraces his or her secular-humanism with every bit as much faith as the most devout saint posses.

Also, right off the start, I want to acknowledge that I am aware that the cover of Pullman's book states loud and clear that, "this is a story" as if that disclaimer preemptively answers any criticisms to his reinvention of the gospel narratives. I realize this is a fiction, Pullman's own version. However, since he is presuming to deconstruct and reinvent something as pivotal and as immense as the life of the historical Jesus, he cannot duck out of criticism simply by saying, "hey, I told you this is a story". the book.

Unlike some of the reviews I've read, I was not wowed by the ingenious originality of this tale, mainly because there was very little originality to be found. In fact, much like my experience of The DaVinci Code, as I was reading I couldn't help thinking at least once a chapter how old and tired this all sounded. Like Dan Brown's shameless robbery of the central premise and many of the details of the authors of The Holy Blood and The Holy Grail, Pullman turns the "de-mythologizing", pseudo-scholarship of Liberal theologians of the past two centuries into a fictional account of the life of Jesus Christ and the origins of the Christian religion. In this project he proceeds along the familiar lines of separating the supposed tiny kernel of historical Jesus (just a good Jewish moral teacher) from the vast and distorted post-Christ mythologizations of those who used Jesus as an opportunity to construct a cult to challenge the existing power structures and replace it with their own. Like a one man Jesus Seminar, Pullman seeks to sift out the probable historical events and teachings from all supposed glosses, inventions, edits, and manifold additions of post-Christ church leadership. The literary device he uses to accomplish this in a narrative work is to divide the historical Jesus into twin brothers: Jesus, a human, red-blooded, honest Jewish teacher of the golden rule with a keen perception of human nature, and Christ, his underhanded, lowlife, back stabbing, power-hungry alter-ego of a brother whom one can nevertheless identify with. I think this is the only original part of this book.

Pullman rewrites his way chronologically through the gospel story, systematically attacking one cardinal orthodoxy after another, from the virgin birth (a naïve Mary consents to sleep with a town boy because he tells her he is an angel messenger from God and she has been chosen for a special honour), to Jesus' miracles (which are just acts of kindness or bold statements that the growing excitement of the crowds turn into rumours and stories of the miraculous), to the death and resurrection (the body was taken by those who wished to perpetuate the stories of Jesus divinity in order to use them to accomplish their own political ends), and many things in between. Again, nothing particularly new here as the gospels were long ago sifted by those wishing to retain the title `Christian' but were embarrassed by all the super-natural baggage and salvation language that such a handle brought with it.

The true center of this book is the prayer of Jesus in the garden just prior to his arrest and trial. Far from the emotional struggle of the biblical account, where Jesus, knowing his vicarious death was hard upon him, desires in his humanity to avoid the pain and separation, but trusts his heavenly Father and famously declares "nevertheless, not my will but Thine be done", here Jesus' last prayer is an angry outburst of frustration at the silence and indifference of a God he has finally lost faith in. To call this a thinly veiled projection of Pullman's own feelings toward the God of the Bible would be gross understatement. It is yet one more example of the two controlling tenets of atheism: 1) there is no God, and 2) I hate him.

I must take exception to another reviewer's opinion as the prose in this book was anything but lyric and I believe Pullman himself would agree with me. Due to the nature of this story the plain, unadorned prose suited the genre better than flowery description which one never typically finds in mythology or in the Bible (but for the poetic books). From my perspective, however, the style was the only strength of this book and if zero stars was an option on Amazon, that is what I would have rated this book. Strictly considered, I found this to be a well written (from a technical perspective, genre constraints considered) fictionalization of some worn-out secularist liberal theological railings against the historicity of the Bible's accounts of Jesus life and works. That is to say, it was like an incorrectly balanced ledger, where all the numbers and totals are nevertheless written with admirable penmanship. But however aesthetically pleasing the handwriting might be, the sums will leave you in trouble with the tax man when he audits you.

This book is the rebellious attempt to remove redemption from the redemption narrative by a man who refuses to admit his own spiritual bankruptcy and need of the Jesus Christ he is trying to rid history of. But one recalls the age old maxim, that the Christian faith is an anvil that has worn out many hammers. For those wishing to read something from an intelligent pen that takes a very different perspective on the life and ministry of Jesus Christ, try Malcolm Muggerige's JESUS: THE MAN WHO LIVES., G.K. Chesterton's EVERLASTING MAN, THE, C.S. Lewis's Mere Christianity or, N.T. Wright's Simply Christian: Why Christianity Makes Sense orThe Original Jesus: The Life and Vision of a Revolutionary.

The Club of Queer Trades
The Club of Queer Trades
by G. K. Chesterton
Edition: Paperback
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4.0 out of 5 stars Truth is stranger than fiction, May 31 2010
In one of the most memorable statements in this collection of half a dozen short detective stories, Basil Grant argues against his detective wannabe brother, Rupert, that truth is stranger than fiction out of necessity since fiction is a creation of the minds of men. Chesterton implies that since truth is a creation of the mind of God, a mind unfathomable to men, it must therefore be stranger to our thinking than the fictions we human beings can create.

I can't help thinking that, of all the people creating fiction, Chesterton was one of the very best and his fictions some of the strangest. This collection of six short stories all relates to the mysterious Club of Queer Trades, where a person must not only invent a brand new trade but must earn their living at the unique occupation. While not as good as his Father Brown stories or "The Man Who Was Thursday" (in my opinion), Chesterton's first attempts at detective fiction are very clever and much fun to read. They are at once a spoof of detective fiction and a brilliant example of it, something probably only Chesterton could have acheived. If you can find an edition with his essay on the justification of detective fiction, it is also a gem.

Knights Of The Cornerstone, The
Knights Of The Cornerstone, The
by James P Blaylock
Edition: Hardcover
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3.0 out of 5 stars Not bad but far from great, May 25 2010
Some of Blaylock's other works came highly recommended to me so when I saw this one on the shelf, I thought I'd introduce myself to his work. "Knights" is a quirky story with quirky characters which is something I like. However, the mood of the story felt superficial, the descriptions of people and places often seemed heavy handed, and the characters were too under developed to feel any true sympathy for. The overall effect for me was that this is a good idea that needs more work. Unfortunately, it was published prior to that work being done.

I confess I wanted to like this book and there was a spark of excitement when on the opening page there were quotes from both George MacDonald and G.K. Chesterton, two of my all time favourites. The teaser on the back cover seemed promising also. However, the combination of the things listed above along with frequently clunky prose made this an overall disappointment for me. If a book is truly good one doesn't usually find oneself thinking things like, "maybe this would make a better movie than a book", or "man, if this got published maybe even I could publish a book". I'm pretty sure no author wants to hear that about their work but that was where my mind went more than a few times. If the main character had been in his adolescent years and the love interest removed or altered, this would have been at about the right level for a teen adventure.

A Study in Scarlet and The Sign of Four
A Study in Scarlet and The Sign of Four
by Sir Arthur Conan Doyle
Edition: Paperback
Price: CDN$ 6.00
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0 of 1 people found the following review helpful
4.0 out of 5 stars A Defense of format..., May 10 2010
I will not recount the general plot of the story nor comment on the importance of this novel as the first of Doyle's Sherlock Holmes tales. Other reviewers here have done a good job of each. What I want to defend is the format of the book. Many reviewers have mentioned that the flashback of the middle section of the book is an odd and unhelpful format including many unnecessary details and messing up the otherwise consistent chronology of the novel in parts 1 and 3. I want to defend this format as ahead of its time and highly appropriate for the particular story being told. I can understand if the format bothered its original reading public, being used, as they were, to mostly chronological stories. However, in the postmodern literary climate of the present day and for some time already, readers surely must appreciate the many fine novelists and short story writers who have successfully employed non-chronological story telling to great and pleasing effect. This is not only an acceptable way of telling a story, it has been widely praised in many post-Doyle writers, both present day and past (think of Umberto Eco and Jorges Luis Borges for example). I believe that Doyle has used it to winning effect in "Study in Scarlet".

As a secondary note, one has only to read non-Mormon accounts of the history of the Mormon religion, either present day or contemporary to Doyle, to appreciate not only the plausibility but the general truth of Doyle's account. It is not widely known to the average person but nearly any historical account will tell you that in the days of the Mormon migration west and of their settling the Great Salt Valley, the Mormons, often in unconvincing guise as Native Americans, slaughtered hundreds of non-Mormon settlers who attempted to pass through their territory peaceably, plundering their provisions and livestock. Also, no good history of the movement is without its account of the Danite tribe or the "avenging angels", whose job it was to discipline errant, wayward and defecting Mormons, many (if not most) of which were killed and which served to instill fear and submission in the rest of the community. There are also several accounts of Brigham Young which tell of his particularly tyrannical reign and messianic self delusions. Before critiquing Doyle's picture of early western Mormonism, readers would do well to educate themselves on this movement which at one time was at war with the government of the United States and killed several American soldiers and some government officials, as well as destroying or plundering much government property.

Far from taking away from the story, I found both the non-chronological format and the picture of the Mormon western migration and early settlement to be assets to the tale, adding significantly to it.

Solomon Among The Postmoderns
Solomon Among The Postmoderns
by Peter Leithart
Edition: Paperback
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5.0 out of 5 stars The Wisdom of Solomon dialogues with Postmodernism, May 6 2010
Peter Leithart's "Solomon Among the Postmoderns" is both timely and important. Timely since postmodernism is the "ism" we find our selves in and scholars and cultural figures of every stripe frequently make sweeping statements about it and about us in light of it. As such, anyone who desires to engage intelligently in the conversations of our times needs to know what postmodernism is and what it isn't, where it came from and where it is likely heading, and most of all, how it affects our thoughts and lives whether or not we realize it. And this book is important. Most attempts to distill postmodernism (whether from a Christian or secular perspective) by authors writing for the average person either sing the unqualified praises of postmodernism and its apostles or they reject and demonize all things postmodern as the cause of all the evils of our time. Leithart's approach is refreshingly balanced and fair and thankfully devoid of rant and over inflated rhetoric.

The book opens with an alternate interpretation of the central thought of Ecclesiastes, believing that we have misunderstood it all this time. Rather than the famous, "Vanity of vanities, all is vanity", the author believes Solomon actually to say "Vapour of vapours, all is vapour". I am always skeptical when an author makes such claims but in this case, Leithart's interpretation of Solomon's observations of this life fit far better and more consistently with the wise man's own conclusion of the matter. If all is truly vanity, and by the common understanding, pointless, Solomon's conclusions to simply live and work at one's vocation and embrace the simple things in life with joy, peace and gratitude are at best an empty piety and at worst a cruel joke. But if all is vapour and beyond our control, it makes perfect sense to not fret about and try to direct what things are by nature beyond our control. Such a desire to control is ultimately an attempt to "shepherd wind". Solomon concludes that just because we can't shepherd the wind that is life doesn't mean it is out of control. We can pursue our work on earth with joy and thankfulness of heart because we know the One who can and does shepherd the wind.

Leithart sets out to examine what the postmodern thinkers are telling us about ourselves, about reality, about experience, all within the context of what Solomon tells us in Ecclesiastes about ourselves, the world and our interactions within it. Leithart quotes and refers frequently to myriad scholars and philosophers evidencing both a broad and deep engagement with first and secondary sources and yet the prose of the book never gets bogged down by technical language nor do Leithart's distillations ever get shrouded in the mists that so often render other writers on this subject open to innumerable misinterpretations (which perhaps provide an unintended defense of the caricature theories on the postmodern understanding of knowledge, communication and interpretation). There are illustrations from everyday life and culture which serve to emphasize the author's observations and conclusions and keep this work accessible to a broad and contemporary audience.

The author is the first to admit that this is not a comprehensive look at where postmodernism comes from, what it means today or where it is leading. Leithart needs to start somewhere however, and with this book, he starts with the Renaissance. He traces, albeit in summary fashion, the development of postmodernism from the Renaissance to today, and shows how postmodernism is both a reaction against the all consuming experiment and ideals of modernism with its attempts to separate, classify, compartmentalize and control everything as well as an intensification of those desires and attempts but from subtly different angles and, at least to some degree, from different motivations.

The greatest strength of this book is its evenhandedness. Leithart is not a bitter modernist wishing to turn back the clock but neither does he see postmodernism as our messianic deliverer from all that modernism got wrong. Following the wisdom of Solomon, Leithart guides the reader through many of the genuinely wise observations and interpretations of the postmoderns when they show us that, contra the modernism project, there is very little we can truly know in fullness and even less we can really control. At the same time Leithart shows that the postmoderns have not really abandoned all the supposed evils they decry of modernism. Solomon holds a running dialogue with the conclusions of postmoderns throughout the book and where postmodernism has made astute and correct observations on the follies of modernism and man's attempts to control all things, we see that true wisdom already knew this. There is nothing new under the sun. Where post is right, it was not the first to be so...there is something pre. And where post is wrong, it stands in a long tradition of humanity's wrong answers.

Leithart believes postmoderns are not to be feared and reviled, which is the reaction of so many Christians. But neither are they to be embraced uncritically as many others in the church do. In their critiques of modernism, postmoderns are often right, benefiting as they do from retrospect. But they are also wrong on many things, as people who forsake the wisdom of God so often are. Solomon is a reliable guide for the person who wishes to navigate postmodernism because his source of wisdom comes from beyond the temporal and the temporary. Solomon's wisdom comes through one who set out to experience all this life had to offer and found it all vapour. Therefore his wisdom is practical, applicable, earthy, experiential. And yet this wisdom comes from beyond the vapour, from a "time beyond the time that is under the sun". The conclusion of the postmodern matter is for Leithart that one must turn to God's wisdom to understand the vapourous nature of existence and experience since only God is beyond the vapour, only God can shepherd the wind.

End Of Reason
End Of Reason
by Ravi Zacharias
Edition: Hardcover
Price: CDN$ 13.31
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25 of 26 people found the following review helpful
5.0 out of 5 stars A reasonable reasponse to Harris's unreasonable book, April 15 2010
This review is from: End Of Reason (Hardcover)
Ravi Zacharias has, as the first reviewer says, done an able job in answering Sam Harris's book length rant against religion (mainly Christianity). Ravi, as always, writes with intelligence, keen logic, grace and aplomb, none of which can be said about the author or book Ravi is refuting. Ravi is perhaps uniquely gifted to apply a sharp slap in the face to the modern hostile atheist authors all the while making it feel like a warning from a concerned wiser, older friend. As Ravi takes Harris's atheistic tenets to their logical conclusion, he shows that atheism always has and always will lead to a world of individualistic license, unrestrained evil, loveless existence and empty despair. Also well done is Ravi's job of showing how whenever Harris makes a morality statement or a pronouncement of the "evils" of religion, he has to import categories (good and evil, right and wrong) that his own worldview has no explanation for and therefore no right to employ. Harris's whole argument against religion has to spend borrowed moral capital from Christianity. Harris can only say and believe the things he does about any Christian beliefs or behaviours being evil because many of his presuppositions are still very Christian. There is no such thing as an objective standard of good and evil in a universe without God; there is only personal preference and the strength to over-power someone else's preferences.

When Ravi systematically unravels Harris's arguments (often merely unfounded assertions), one is left wondering how Harris's book could ever have been taken seriously by a half way intelligent person much less become a best seller. I find it amusing to watch how the "new atheists" argue for a world of pure secular humanism with all the passion of a pack of religious zealots. As the likes of Harris, Dawkins and Hitchens flog their rabid atheism they sound more like wild-eyed desert prophets than anything. It is clear, perhaps to everyone but them, that they are every bit as religious as the most extremist religious practitioner they rail against, and just as dangerous should their views ever receive wide subscription. The only difference is that their god is themselves, all the while it is labeled and masquerading in their writings as "science". All this Zacharias does a masterful job of exposing. Although Ravi admits to this being his most edgy book, one cannot read it without detecting the genuine love and desire on his part to see the new atheists wake up to the bankruptcy of their worldview.

For those interested in another excellent rebuttal of Harris's rant, here is a much punchier contribution that focuses more on exposing the internal inconsistencies of atheism than on positively proving Christianity Letter from a Christian Citizen: A Response to Letter to a Christian Nation by Sam Harris.

Quick Service
Quick Service
by P. G Wodehouse
Edition: Hardcover
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4.0 out of 5 stars Laughs come quickly, April 12 2010
This review is from: Quick Service (Hardcover)
Right off the cricket wicket, I need to say that I am an avid Wodehouse fan. In my admiration for his writing and the intense enjoyment I get from reading his works, I am in very good company. As always, I enjoyed this Wodehouse offering very much. In my opinion this book is not as funny as the Wooster & Jeeves stories or the Blandings Castle tales or even as some of his other one-off stories (like "Easy Money") but this ought not deter anyone from reading it however, since the Jeeves books are so funny they really are in a league of their own and are therefore an unfair standard to compare even other Wodehouse works to. I highly recommend this to any already committed fan of Wodehouse but warn again that this is not Jeeves and Wooster so don't expect it to be. It is not written in the foppish first person of Bertie Wooster but rather from the omnitient narrator's perspective. And for anyone new to Wodehouse, read this and some of the other stand-alone stories before jumping into the world of Blandings or especially of Jeeves and Wooster and you will only find your reading enjoyment escalating and your laughter multiplying as you move on to them.

Talking About Detective Fiction
Talking About Detective Fiction
by P.D. James
Edition: Hardcover
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3 of 3 people found the following review helpful
4.0 out of 5 stars A Master discusses the craft, March 23 2010
This is an ode to, as well as a look beneath the surface of, a specific genre (or subgenre) of popular literature: detective fiction. One of the things that makes this book special is that it is written not by a literary critic or a book reviewer but by arguably one of the ablest present day practitioners of the craft, P.D. James, author of the Adam Dalgliesh detective novels.

This relatively brief book (about 196 pages of text - the book dimensions are small and the pages have large margins all round) touches on a broad range of considerations, including the origins of detective fiction and how it was prefigured in Dickens, Austen, Bronte and others as well as the history of the genre through the Victorian and Edwardian ages as well as the "golden age" between the wars and immediately following WWII, up to the present day. James also discusses briefly the major differences between detective fiction on either side of the Atlantic, comparing the "hard boiled" heroes (or anti-heroes) of the American authors with the tidy and familiar heroes, and their "Watsons", of the English "golden age" authors, with stories often set in an idyllic and largely imaginary iconic English country side. Also touched upon is the changing psychology between the "golden age" and the present one, as well as the huge shifts in cultural climate in which detective fiction nevertheless still finds a prominent place. James deals with many more aspects of the genre that I won't get into here. However, for the reader who is looking for an in depth, scholarly and comprehensive work on detective fiction, this is not it. While there is obviously much thought, reflection and broad reading behind it, by James's own admission, this is not a penetrating critical or exhaustive work. This is a brief introduction to some of the beneath-the-surface considerations of a sub-genre as well as an insider's and practitioner's appreciation of all that she loves of the genre...and for me, someone who enjoys good detective fiction, particularly from the "golden age" and James's own work, that is exactly what I was hoping for.

This book's best moments are when James discusses the great detective authors and the worlds they lived in. James reminds us of how much richer our lives are for having faithful and familiar armchair friends like Holmes and Watson, Miss Marple and Hercule Poirot. I especially appreciated James's discussion of G.K. Chesterton and Dorothy L. Sayers (two of my favourites) and their heroes, Father Brown and Lord Peter Wimsey respectively. It's a shame more modern readers aren't aware of these two authors who, in my opinion, are among the very best in the genre. If James's book accomplishes nothing else, I hope it causes a spike in the sales of these two authors.

I also appreciated the discussion of the importance of character, setting, plot and mystery and how those elements have been weighted differently for different authors and across different eras in the history of the genre. Very interesting was James's reflection on the principle of fairness among writers where one should never hide from your readers facts and clues essential to solving the murder themselves although cloaking them in mystery is, of course, just good form. Also fun was her brief look at the "love it" or "hate it" stance most readers take toward this genre - there are very few people who read it and remain indifferent.

Truly, my only complaint is the cover price of the book, in Canada $29.95. It is an attractive hardcover, but it is fairly small and I read it essentially in two not very lengthy sittings. I'm glad my local bookstore had a $20 promotional sticker on the cover or I wouldn't have purchased it, therefore making my future forays into detective fiction the poorer for it. However, if you like P.D. James or the genre in general, I think anyone's reading of detective fiction will be enriched by this discussion and the Amazon price is more than fair.

Deep Exegesis: The Mystery of Reading Scripture
Deep Exegesis: The Mystery of Reading Scripture
by Peter J. Leithart
Edition: Paperback
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4 of 4 people found the following review helpful
5.0 out of 5 stars Toward understanding ALL God has to say, March 17 2010
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Peter Leithart has done ministers, Christian scholars and the Church in general a huge favour with this book. He declares that the Scriptures themselves ought to be the authority for how one interprets them. In evangelical, reformed and conservative Christian circles of scholarship, sola scriptura (the reformation principle that "Scripture alone" is the Church's authority for all of life and doctrine) has been the basis for the rejection of all sorts of heretical doctrines and errant practices and for holding fast to "the faith, once for all delivered to the saints", and rightly so. However, without even batting an eye, many of those same well-meaning folks have adopted a model of interpreting those Scriptures which is itself imported from outside of God's Word and then imposed upon it.

Dr. Leithart traces this outside and extra-biblical system of viewing and interpreting Scripture to Spinoza and his contemporaries and up through modernism, with its mindset of scientific and systematic compartmentalization. Such thinking tended to "spiritualize" Scripture since it had to do with religion, relegating its relevance and application to the private, inward life of the soul and separating it from the political and material realms, for example. However, the Hebrew mind (the culture into which the Scriptures were given by God and from of which they spread) did not divide man into body, soul, spirit and mind but understood humans in terms of organic wholeness. Therefore, to the Hebrew mind, the Scriptures have a much broader relevance. In fact, there was not a single area of life or thought that Scripture did not speak to - and the whole Scripture spoke to the whole man.

Leithart shows examples of current exegetical theory which limit interpretations of a given passage to one and only one proper meaning. This is not the way we are taught how to interpret the Bible by the examples we see within its own pages. Leithart gives examples of "poor" apostolic exegesis by the standards of current exegetical practice (Paul's famous "do not muzzle the ox while it treads out the grain" to argue for monetary support for faithful ministers of the gospel and his allegorizing of the Sarah/Hagar story - "these are two covenants...") and argues that, far from being unique and scattered exceptions to the rule of interpretation, these passages display the interpretive rule; they show us how we are to understand and interpret Scripture rightly. One can see many hermeneutics professors rolling over in their graves or toppling over at their lecterns at this point.

Instead of an "only one correct interpretation for any given text" approach to hermeneutics, Leithart makes the case for reviving some form or approximation of the medieval quadriga. With this exegetical method of reading and interpreting the text, there is a literal sense (the plain meaning, with an element of both the historical understanding the original recipients would have understood and the continuing implications for a present day audience), a moral sense (what does this passage call the reader to do or imitate), an allegorical or typological sense (what does this passage say about Christ and/or what is the theological learnings based in this passage) and an anagogical sense (what future hope is this text calling the reader to). Here, many reading this review might either write me as reviewer or Leithart as author completely off based on wild and fanciful interpretations they have heard promulgated by medieval exegetes but hang on...that would be a mistake. One may not be 100% convinced of such a method of interpreting the Scriptures and still receive a good deal of benefit from reading this book. For one, it will make you think about the scriptural basis for your own model of interpreting Scripture.

One theme Leithart returns to over and over is that in our interpretation, we ought to desire to hear ALL God has to say to us through his Word and Leithart argues that God is not saying only one thing in any given passage. It is clear from the way some passages of Scripture treat others that at least the passages they specifically deal with have more than one true sense. If this is the case, one needs to make the decision about whether the Bible itself is our authority on how to interpret it or if modernist literary interpretive method is the authority for understanding Scripture. If we go with modernist methodology, we have departed (in our hermeneutic) from the authority of Scripture and placed it underneath our model, the very thing a faithful Christian knows must not be done.

Leithart gives examples from everyday experience in which we already inherently recognize that there is purposefully more than one true sense in which to understand something. A joke, for example, may be humorous on multiple levels, or a scene in a play, book or movie may have layers of correct, varied and multiple meanings. John 9 is explored in some depth to show how the story of Jesus' healing of the man born blind is so much more than merely a miracle story. And while not everyone will be convinced by all aspects of his John 9 example, one cannot come away merely content to see this narrative the way one has always seen it. Leithart convincingly shows that by Scripture's own rule, a wooden literalistic (rather than a proper literary) interpretive model is not an option for the exegete whose own interpretive work is itself subjected to the authority of the Book he/she is attempting to understand. At the same time, Leithart stresses that the model he advocates must itself be subject to all of Scripture when gleaning the manifold meanings of any given passage. This book is not a license for fanciful "reinventions" of the text but a rigorous reexamination of what biblically informed and faithful interpretation should look like. Knowing Leithart's passion for a full-orbed trinitarian theology of all things, I believe it is safe to say that his interpretive model could be summarized as seeing the different meanings or senses of a text as a one-in-three (or more) and a three (or more)-in-one. This guards against an "anything goes" or a "new is true" free-for-all because it disallows any interpretation that would counter or contradict one of the other senses of the text (say, the literal-historic, for example).

In my opinion, the greatest strength of this book is that it calls interpreters back to basing their interpretive methods and principles themselves on Scripture. In the end, Dr. Leithart admits that this subject needs further exploration and that the parameters of the present volume didn't allow for it. I for one look forward to the conversation this book is bound to spur among exegetes and I hope for further material on this subject from Peter Leithart in the future. In the meantime, readers interested in creative but biblical exegesis and hermeneutics would benefit from the works of Kevin Vanhoozer, John Frame and Vern Poythress.

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