- Hardcover: 368 pages
- Publisher: Darwin Pr (March 1 1996)
- Language: English
- ISBN-10: 0878500944
- ISBN-13: 978-0878500949
- Product Dimensions: 15.9 x 3.2 x 24.1 cm
- Shipping Weight: 748 g
- Average Customer Review: 3 customer reviews
- Amazon Bestsellers Rank: #1,977,898 in Books (See Top 100 in Books)
Death and Exile: The Ethnic Cleansing of Ottoman Muslims, 1821-1922 Hardcover – Mar 1 1996
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About the Author
Justin McCarthy is Professor of History at the University of Louisville.
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The Muslim loss is an important part of the history of the Turks. It was they who most felt the consequences of nationalism and imperialism. At a time when the Ottoman Empire was struggling to reform itself and survive as a modern state, it was first forced to drain its limited resources to defend its people from slaughter by its enemies, then to try to care for the refugees who streamed into the empire when those enemies triumphed. After the Ottoman Empire was destroyed in World War I, the Turks of what today is Turkey faced the same problems - invasion, refugees. and mortality. The Turks survived, but their nation was greatly affected by the events of the past century. The new Turkish Republic was a nation of immigrants whose citizens came from Bulgaria, Greece, Yugoslavia. Armenia, Georgia, Russia, Ukraine, and elsewhere. Like the Ottoman Empire before it, Turkey faced all the difficulties of integrating an immigrant population and coping with massive wartime destruction while it was trying to modernize and survive. The challenges of that struggle shaped the character of the Turkish Republic.
Despite the historical importance of Muslim losses, it is not to be found in textbooks. Textbooks and histories that describe massacres of Bulgarians. Armenians, and Greeks have not mentioned corresponding massacres of Turks.
The exile and mortality of the Muslims is not known. This goes against modern practice in other areas of history. It has rightly become unthinkable today to write of American expansion without consideration of the brutality shown to Native Americans. The carnage of the Thirty Years' War must be a part of any history of
religious change in Europe. Historians cannot write of imperialism without mention of slaughter of Africans in the Congo or of Chinese in the Opium Wars. Yet, in the West, the history of the suffering of the Balkan, Caucasian. and Anatolian Muslims has never been written or understood. The history of the Balkans, the Caucasus, and Anatolia has been written without mention of one of its main protagonists, the Muslim population. The "traditional" view of the history of the Balkans, the Caucasus, and Anatolia is less than complete, if not misleading, because the histories of the Ottoman minority groups are taken out of context. A major part of that context is the suffering of Muslims, which took place in the same regions and at the same time as the sufferings of Christians, and often transcended them. The few who have attempted to alter the traditional view have been derided as "revisionists "as if revision were an academic sin and contextual historical accuracy irrelevant. In fact, revising one-sided history and changing deficient traditional wisdom is the business of the historian, and in few areas of history is revision so needed as in the history of the Ottoman peoples. The history that results from the process of revision is an unsettling one, for it tells the story of Turks as victims, and this is not the role in which they are usually cast. It does not present the traditional image of the Turk as victimizer, never victim, that has continued in the histories of America and Europe long after it should have been discarded with other artifacts of nineteenth-century racism.
between that dates,1821-1922 , Armenians were massacred by turks and kurds,There are many proofs.recently French government admitted that the Armenian genocide took place. this book says the opposite.
It is like saying i can live without my brain and heart! if you think that is possible or believe that, then you can believe this book.
There are even photos, taken by a german traveler, and these photos are availabe in many websites.
In my opinion, the benefit of this book is that, like this, mr Justin McCarthy can sell more books(80-90 million Turks and kurds compared to 7 million armenians).
Armenians were not the only Victims, hundreds of thousands greeks, bulgarians, lebanese,... were also massacred .This is just to mention few...
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Opinions and comments by Dr. M. Sahinoglu, the author of RAINDROPS ON MY LIFE'S UMBRELLA (Amazon self-published, 2016
Do not be intimidated by others who want you to draw different conclusion from history, on either side of the political spectrum, this book is definitely objective and reading it cannot harm you.
The book is concerning the Ottoman Muslims as defined by the Bosnian, Albanian, Bulgarian Turk, East Anatolian, Tatar and Caucasian Muslims who were murdered, raped, forcibly deported and had their land and property stolen during the Balkan war and Russian expansion.
Specific areas the book covers are Greece, Bulgaria, Eastern Anatolia, The Crimea and the Caucuses. Brief mention is made of Albania also. One of the main problems with the book is it covers such a vast geographical area and historical period that its attention to real detail is a little thin. It covers history from the Balkan wars up to the formation of the Turkish republic. It would be like writing a 368 page book on the history of Central Europe during world wars one and two and expecting to have detail on the various war crimes, massacres, and population expulsions. I feel it would have been a lot better if he had remained on one specific area such as the Balkans (Much in the same way he covers the Armenian rebellion in Van)
McCarthy is correct in stating that the plight of Ottoman Muslims is largely unknown in the West and a large part of Greek , Bulgarian and Balkan history has been airbrushed. Where he is over simplistic is in his assumption that everyone in the west regards history as some kind of "civilization vs barbarianism" and that regardless of the results conquest of a people of a different religion or ethnic group is something celebrated.
I also feel McCarthy has gotten himself a little too caught up in the official historical line of most Balkan countries "Turkey forged out of the ashes of an Empire" "The Greeks deep knowledge and pride in their history" etc.... It is doubtful that village Greeks in Central Anatolia had time to study Greek epics any more than the Turkish villager in Bulgaria or southern Greece sat about reading the Shahname.
The book also fails to answer some points such as the Russian push into the Caucuses. Why would the Russians simply depopulate an entire Geographical area, repopulate it with "Russians" (Does he mean Cossacks?) and then offer the local Muslims the choice of expulsion or removal to another part of the Russian empire? Was it simply conquest or was it for strategic reasons in which case, is this not the same argument the Turkish government uses for the deportation of Armenians during WW1? Why did the Russians choose to put Armenian families in Georgian ares when there are ethnic differences and conflicts between the two groups (Was McCarthy not aware of this when he decided to share with us that information?) Or was McCarthy far to concerned with seeing the conflict as "Christian Vs Muslim"?
This is a fascinating subject and one that is rarely studied (which is why I give it 4 stars) I would however, recommend the books of Shaw or Inalcik over McCarthy based upon this one (Though I did find his "Armenian rebellion in Van" Much better) I feel because he has tried to make this book more of a "General history" one he has skimmed far too many subjects and lacked real attention to detail.
I have deliberately not mentioned his chapters on Armenia and the conflict in Eastern Anatolia as looking at previous reviewers if you say there was a genocide then you are anti/Muslim anti/Turk if you say there was not you are an "Irvin holocaust denier" Hopefully the time will come when amazon wises up and actually publishes customer reviews and not customer rants on its website.