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Delta Blues: The Life And Times Of The Mississippi Master Who Revolutionized Paperback – Oct 27 2009

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Product Details

  • Paperback: 482 pages
  • Publisher: WW Norton (Oct. 27 2009)
  • Language: English
  • ISBN-10: 0393337502
  • ISBN-13: 978-0393337501
  • Product Dimensions: 14 x 3 x 20.8 cm
  • Shipping Weight: 363 g
  • Average Customer Review: 5.0 out of 5 stars 1 customer review
  • Amazon Bestsellers Rank: #192,145 in Books (See Top 100 in Books)
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Product Description

From Publishers Weekly

Starred Review. Gioia (The History of Jazz) succeeds admirably in the daunting task of crafting a comprehensive history of the art form known as the blues, depicting the life story of the music from its cradle in the Mississippi Delta all the way to its worldwide influence on contemporary sounds. His sweeping examination focuses on the legends in detail, including Charley Patton, Son House, Tommy Johnson, Robert Johnson, Muddy Waters, John Lee Hooker, Howlin' Wolf, B.B. King and many more. He often deconstructs myths, such as the story that both Tommy Johnson and Robert Johnson made midnight deals with the devil at the crossroads, and digs deep to clarify many murky stories, including untruths and wild speculations about the life and early death of Robert Johnson. His narrative follows the northern migration of the blues to Chicago, where Muddy Waters recorded for Chess Records, and along the way he analyzes the influence of Delta blues on Elvis, the Rolling Stones and other rock 'n' roll icons. Gioia dissects many songs, but he doesn't write beyond the understanding of general readers, creating the rare combination of a tome that is both deeply informative and enjoyable to read. (Oct.)
Copyright © Reed Business Information, a division of Reed Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved. --This text refers to an out of print or unavailable edition of this title.


"...the passionate blues singing of Mississippi's steamy cotton fields ultimately gave rise to rock'n'roll. Ted Gioia expertly traces its colourful history and heroes." Books of the Year 2008, The Economist "[A] rich and illuminating study... Gioia, who has researched thoroughly and listened carefully, does a splendid job of telling the story on a broad canvas..." Mick Brown, The Daily Telegraph "Gioia's depth of research is breathtaking...The author's sheer passion for the music comes through on every page, and you can almost hear those old shellac 78s as you read his descriptions." "He uses original research, interviews with reliable sources and his own calm, argument-closing incantations to draw a line through a century of the Delta blues." International Herald Tribune "Gioia's intermittently brilliant and always compelling investigation of the blues is marked with a musician's ear for the form and a fan's enthusiasm for both the recordings and the artists." The Herald

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Format: Paperback
Thoroughly and completely enjoyable read. Very informative, yet doesn't beat the life out of the blues with too much dry exposition, as Gioia clearly enjoys listening to his subject as much as writing about it. Introduced me to some new names, and gave me a new appreciation for artists I'd earlier dismissed as too "popular". Good pre-Blues background that emphasizes the amount of conjecture in any discussion of the roots of the blues. Does a good job discussing the work of other researchers. Includes an appendix of 100 essential tracks. Can't say enough good things about this book.

I would add, however, be sure to read this book with your iTunes open and youtube available. I read this book on vacation and felt I lost an added layer of understanding that would have been added by listening to the music as he describes it.
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Most Helpful Customer Reviews on (beta) HASH(0x964389b4) out of 5 stars 44 reviews
21 of 23 people found the following review helpful
HASH(0x9646454c) out of 5 stars The Delta Blues come alive here Jan. 1 2009
By Steven Peterson - Published on
Format: Hardcover Verified Purchase
This is a wonderful work for those interested in the blues--and more specifically, the Delta blues. First thing to know: I used to think that the Delta blues came from the delta of the Mississippi River as it flowed into the Gulf of Mexico. Boy, was my geography wrong! The delta referred to is the land between and around the confluence of the Yazoo and Mississippi Rivers. And what blues players emerged from this poor, difficult country. To name some of them is to name some of the best known blues players of all time--Charley Patton, Son House, Mississippi John Hurt, Robert Johnson, Tommy Johnson, Howlin' Wolf, Muddy Waters, and B. B. King.

The book begins by examining the various ideas as to how the blues developed. The introductory sections also discuss how African-American music came to gain acceptance by the larger society (minstrel shows, for example). But the heart of the book is the exploration of the variety of blues singers and musicians. One problem to recognize at the outset is that very little is known about many of the earlier musicians, including people as important to the blues as Son House and Charley Patton. One aspect of the book that was compelling to me is the detective work by Ted Gioia, the author, to provide as much decent information as possible about the biographies of the men and women in the book. He tries to make sense out of sketchy information and earlier biographical sketches of the blues players.

The subsequent discussion considers the "Mississippi masters," one by one. Some are rather brief, given the paucity of information, of talents such as Louise Johnson or Willie Brown. Others are more detailed, where more abundant and credible information is available. We read of Son House's battle between religion and music; we learn of the travails of Robert Johnson; the Odyssey of Muddy Waters from the Delta to Chicago.

The book concludes by examining how some of the old blues players were rediscovered in the 1960s and actually experienced career success in a way not possible earlier, such as Mississippi John Hurt or Son House or Bukka White. We also read of the possibility of a rebirth of talent in the Delta, with speculation about the future of the blues there. Once can quibble about stretching what we know of these old musicians based on limited evidence, but--all in all--this is a terrific addition to the literature on the blues and should be welcome to those interested in this genre.
12 of 13 people found the following review helpful
HASH(0x96464b7c) out of 5 stars Great book -- even for well-read blues buffs Jan. 13 2009
By A. Levine - Published on
Format: Hardcover
This book offers a great synthesis of sharp analysis about the origins of the blues and its impact, coupled with trenchant biographical details about all the great Delta figures, from Charley Patton through Howlin' Wolf and beyond. Even if you've read Palmer's Deep Blues, Elijah Wald's revisiting of the music of Robert Johnson, Paul Oliver's work, Alan Lomax, Francis Davis's history of the blues, and other major works and biographies, this book offers something special. It will have you running back to your CD collection or ordering (or downloading) new albums. You'll listen to the music in fresh ways and learn something new about artists you thought you knew well.
Highly recommended.
6 of 7 people found the following review helpful
HASH(0x96464aec) out of 5 stars Blues Passion Dec 11 2008
By Robin Friedman - Published on
Format: Hardcover
For many years, the blues of the Mississippi Delta were all but forgotten. With the combination of cross over or urbanized performances and scholarly interest, the blues have experienced a resurgence. Ted Gioia's new book "Delta Blues: the Life and Times of the Mississippi Masters who Revolutionized American Music" (2008) is the most recent work which carefully studies the Delta blues tradition Gioia is a performer and a scholar who began with an interest in jazz. As a young jazz musician, Gioia tells the reader that he thought that he understood the nature of the blues in terms of harmony, rhythm, and chord patterns. Only as a result of maturity and years of close study did he become aware of the "deeper essence" of the music (page ix). Gioia writes:

"I found myself listening to the same blues music I had heard in my youth with much different ears, and certainly no longer with the glib assurance that I had plumbed its depths. On the contrary, the music now seemed multilayered, otherworldly, elusive. I sensed a richness to these songs, especially the older blues from the Delta tradition, that I had missed before." (p. x)

Throughout the book, Gioia writes about the history of the Delta blues, the performers, and the music with passion and knowledge.

The history of the Delta blues can be divided into two large parts. The first is the traditional blues, performed by artists on the farms, plantations, prisons, juke joints, streets, railroad stations of the Delta itself. Generally traditional blues were performed by one person or sometimes two persons, singing and accompanying himself on guitar or harmonica. This type of traditional blues generally ended with Muddy Waters's recordings on the Stovall Plantation in Mississippi for Alan Lomax and the Library of Congress in 1943.

The second period of the Delta blues began when blues musicians migrated from the Delta and moved to Chicago or other cities. When they did so, they generally electrified their guitars and began performing in bands rather than as individuals. Their music became influenced by other musical styles and by commercial considerations. It led to rock and roll and then in turn became heavily influenced by rock. Here again Muddy Waters is the prototypical figure with his move to Chicago shortly after his sessions with Lomax.

In his book, Gioia discusses thoroughly both these forms of the Delta blues and he shows their relationship. But his heart clearly is with the early blues masters. This early music is wild, raw and primitive. In its anguish, simplicity, repeated guitar patterns, and harmonic quirkiness, it brought something to music that was not found elsewhere, either in the classics or in other forms of popular music. The Delta blues was music of outcasts and loners, of untutored musicians who lacking musical training struggled to express what was in them. The bluesmen lived undisciplined lives filled with wandering, alcohol, violence, prisons and Parchman Farm, and lost love. These passions they expressed through music.

Most importantly, many bluesmen were conflicted between what they perceived as their rootless, sinful life in the blues and the force of religion. The Delta blues show a distinctively metaphysical, personal cast. The tension between the life of a vagrant musician and a life devoted to God pervades the music of Son House, Tommy Johnson, Robert Johnson and others. Gioia is at his best when he describes this tension and gives it central place in his treatment of the Delta blues. He describes as well the origins of the music, its recording history, and the biographies of its practitioners. He analyzes the music in a way that lay readers may follow easily. In addition to the musicians that have now become well-known, Gioia describes obscure figures such as blueswomen Geeshie Wiley and the rare Delta woman blues pianist Louise Johnson.

Gioia offers as well a sympathetic portrayal of the Delta blues beginning in the 1940s with its urbanization and increased sophistication. His portrayals of Muddy Waters and Howlin' Wolf, and their relationship with Leonard Chess and Chess records in Chicago were brought home in the recent movie "Cadillac Records" which I found captured the spirit of this urban transformation of the Delta Blues. Besides Waters and Wolf, Gioia devotes extensive attention to the long careers of John Lee Hooker and B.B. King. Gioia's treatment of King is particularly detailed as he portrays King's early days in the Delta, his blues scholarship and knowledge, and the many transformations in his music and in its reception over the years.

Writing of the early Delta blues in particular, Gioia states "This is strange, wonderful music no less peculiar for having achieved lasting appeal and commercial success" (p.5). Gioia's in-depth treatment of traditional Delta blues has inspired me to revisit this great American music. The book includes an excellent bibliography and a list of 100 Delta blues songs for listening and study.

Robin Friedman
51 of 72 people found the following review helpful
HASH(0x96464b64) out of 5 stars Still Needed, Definitive Delta Blues History Feb. 23 2009
By R. Weinstock - Published on
Format: Hardcover
This review originally appeared in my blog,

It's been some four decades since this writer developed his love and enthusiasm for the blues, particularly those blues artists rooted in the Mississippi Delta and surrounding area. As a freshman in college, I bought and read Samuel Charters The Bluesmen, as well as various books by Paul Oliver. I also purchased reissues of rare country blues on Yazoo, Origin Jazz and Blues Classics, as well as albums by Muddy Waters, Howling Wolf, Little Walter and Sonny Boy Williamson on Chess; B.B. King and John Lee Hooker on Bluesway; Elmore James on United and a variety of other acts. Charters' book brought alive the music and personalities of the artists he focused on, which included not simply the great artists from the Delta, but also such pioneering Texas blues artists such as Blind Lemon Jefferson and Texas Alexander. Written at the time that Son House, Skip James and Bukka White had been rediscovered and were performing, and with the contemporaneous interviews that he drew upon, he made these artists and their recordings larger than life.

The Bluesmen was a major factor that led me into my four decades old obsession with blues artists and their music. I start reading DownBeat for the incisive articles and reviews by Pete Welding and John Litweiler, the pioneering British publications Blues Unlimited and Blues World, (to which I made modest contributions), and then Living Blues when it began publishing. New information on the blues legends came out along with numerous reissues of rare recordings. Robert Palmer published his pioneering Deep Blues, while Living Blues and Blues Unlimited (and after Blues Unlimited folded, Juke Blues and Blues & Rhythm) published lengthy interviews with the likes of Johnny Shines, Robert Lockwood, Eddie Taylor, Snooky Pryor and others. In light of the surprise success of the Robert Johnson reissue box around 1990, much was written on Johnson and his music and influences, with Elijah Wald's Escaping the Delta: Robert Johnson and the Invention of the Blues being important in both debunking myths about Johnson's life, as well as highlighting Johnson's place in the history of the blues. And, in addition to several books about Johnson, we have been fortunate to have had biographies about some of the major figures in blues from the Delta including Skip James, Charlie Patton, Muddy Waters, Howling Wolf, Elmore James, Little Walter, Memphis Minnie, and Jimmy Reed. And if Mack McCormick never finished his planned Robert Johnson biography (or his equally important book on Texas Blues and Music), his work has been drawn on others including Peter Guralnick.

Ted Gioia's new book Delta Blues was a surprise when I heard of it. I was familiar with his History of Jazz and his book on West Coast Jazz, but a new book on the deep blues that came out of Mississippi was intriguing. This music, that moves so many of us, was rooted in a community living under the most oppressive conditions. In summarizing what we know about the music's early days and the lives of some of the pioneering artists, Gioia provides a useful service. Gioia integrates the writings of Stephen Calt and Gayle Dean Wardlow in putting together portraits of Patton, Son House, Robert Johnson and Skip James, and adds some brief sketches of Big Joe Williams and Tommy McClennan as well as highlight the importance of H.C. Speir, who was the talent scout that led to most of the great Delta artists recording. But his focus, even on the early Delta blues, is on the guitarist-vocalists, and outside of brief mentions of Louise Johnson (who recorded at one of Charlie Patton's sessions) and Skip James, there is essentially no discussion of the blues piano tradition of the Delta region or its proponents.

Gioia perhaps places too much relevance in the fact that some early blues recordings were reworked by such rock acts as Cream, Rolling Stones, Canned Heat and Led Zeppelin. In discussing James' I'm So Glad, Gioia goes beyond simply noting Cream would rework the song, and incredulously includes Cream's jam-rock live recording as one of the 100 Essential Blues Recordings. Discussing Johnson, he traces his life and discusses his recordings while integrating the recollections of Johnny Shines, Robert Lockwood, Honeyboy Edwards and others who knew the pioneering blues artist. In addition to the music and biography, he also attempts to counterbalance the writings of Elijah Wald and Barry Lee Pearson who had debunked the Robert Johnson sold his soul to the devil myth with a suggestion that Johnson may have presented himself as having done so to the public.

Gioia takes us forward with discussion of the Delta recordings for the Library of Congress that Alan Lomax made, focusing on the sessions with Son House and Honeyboy Edwards as well as Muddy Waters. The discussion of Muddy Waters leads off a detailed discussion of his music and career, along with similarly detailed examinations of John Lee Hooker, Howlin' Wolf and B.B. King. There is a brief overview of Mississippi blues in Chicago and a chapter on the blues revival, detailing the rediscovery and postwar careers of some early blues pioneers. However, seminal Mississippi blues artists like Elmore James and Jimmy Reed are dealt with not as thoroughly, and such equally important Delta artists as Albert King and Sonny Boy Williamson are not dealt with in any substantial fashion.

There are also curious statements made, including one that Jimmy Reed failed to achieve fame or critical recognition in the blues world. The statement simply is foreign to my understanding as a blues fan. Also, in the limited discussion of Elmore James he doesn't discuss James' travels with Robert Johnson or Steve Franz's assertion that Dust my Broom was as much James' song as Johnson's. Enamored by Honeyboy Edwards, Gioia repeats Edwards' claim, without challenge, that Chess held his material back because they would not compete with Muddy Waters. Honeyboy's rendition of Drop Down Mama was first issued on a Chess album of that name nearly four decades ago along with rare and previously unissued recordings by Robert Nighthawk, Johnny Shines, Blue Smitty, Floyd Jones and Big Boy Spires. Listening to that one song in the context of the others on that album, it is likely that Honeyboy's Chess recordings lay unissued because they weren't very good.

You will not find the names of Floyd Jones, Arthur Big Boy' Spires, or Blue Smitty, or their recordings discussed in this book, despite them being equal to some of the recordings that Gioia considers essential. Nor will you find any detailed discussion of the commercial post-war delta recordings of Drifting Slim, Junior Brooks, Boyd Gilmore, Joe Hill Louis, Dr. Ross, J.B. Lenoir, John Littlejohn, Charlie Booker, Walter Horton or Willie Nix. While Sam Phillips and Sun records is acknowledged, the important role of Joe Bihari's field trips in the South, usually with Ike Turner, and the legacy of the recordings he made of Delta artists is ignored. One will not find Pinetop Perkins, whose piano played such a big role in the Delta blues scene of the forties and fifties, in the book's index.

And it is not that the missing artists are biographical phantoms. The late Mike Leadbitter conducted pioneering research on the post-war blues in the Delta Region that has been followed up by many, including most notably, Jim O'Neal. There have been articles published and essays in the booklets accompanying recent reissues of these Delta Blues recordings. Several of the English Ace Records reissues of the Modern Downhome Blues Sessions contain Jim O'Neal's scholarly discussion of the sessions and artists. The volumes devoted the Delta region have been available for a couple of years. In fairness, I have no idea whether Gioia approached O'Neal and others (such as Bill O'Donohue who is writing a biography of Rice Sonny Boy Williamson' Miller) about their research. It is possible that work is still ongoing on the post-war Delta blues volume and that some material was not open to be shared, awaiting its separate publication. But the fact is that some of the results of this research have been published. Nothing in the text, or the list of recommended reading provided by Gioia indicates he made use of such material. There is also no reference or the use of the autobiography by the late Delta blues harmonica player, Sam Myers.

His discussion of the blues revival provides an overview of the rediscovery of some of the prewar artists who found a new audience for their music as well as discusses some of the more recent artists uncovered such as R.L. Burnside and Junior Kimbrough and the Fat Possum label, but there is no mention of the late Jesse Mae Hemphill, nor of Roosevelt Booba' Barnes, the remarkable singer-guitarist who ran his own Mississippi juke joint, or Joe Willie Wilkins, another associate of Robert Johnson and later guitarist on King Biscuit Time, who Steve Lavere recorded and produced an extremely rare, but excellent album by.

Gioia provides a list for further reading, which also has significant omissions relating to books germane to his text. He does not include several of Paul Oliver's writings (a couple of Oliver's books are included, but not The Story of the Blues, and Oliver's writings specifically directed at the questions of the blues origins are not listed). Another significant omission is Mike Rowe's Chicago Breakdown. Gioia also provides a dubious list of 100 essential blues recordings (Gioia selects songs, not albums, because albums might go in and out of print). The uselessness of this list is seen by the inclusion of a Cream recording but nothing by Eddie Taylor, Floyd Jones, Boyd Gilmore, Junior Brooks, Willie Huff, Little Johnnie Jones, Sunnyland Slim, Robert Lockwood or Jesse Mae Hemphill to name a few. If one is going to include Bessie Smith and Blind Lemon Jefferson for context, where are representative recordings by Leroy Carr and Lonnie Johnson? I would also question some specific choices such as Tommy McClennan's Bottle Up and Go, whose controversial lyrics was atypical of McClennan's recordings. I would suggest checking out Elijah Wald's Escaping the Delta: Robert Johnson and the Invention of the Blues, and track down the various recordings Wald discusses.

One might be more forgiving of Gioia if there was substantial new material presented here, but there is little, if any, here. There is discussion that many will find insightful of the music, and Gioia's consideration of the musical legacy of John Lee Hooker is the most credible discussion of John Lee Hooker's recordings readily available; and there is also cogent discussion with respect to early 78-RPM recordings by Mississippi artists. In fact, he shares, with long-standing enthusiasts of the music, the recognition that some of the recordings that reach us so deeply had little, if any, commercial success. At the same time, one still must place the performers accurately in the history of this music, not simply relying on the fact it influenced modern popular artists. Gioia simply does not cover the full spectrum of Delta Blues or the idiom's performers.

In addition to photographs of some of the principal figures here (many from Dick Waterman's collection), the book does benefit from Neil Harpe's artwork. Neil, based in Annapolis, Maryland, is an accomplished artist as well as a pretty darn good blues guitarist and vocalist, and even if I am not very enthusiastic about this book, I am about the artwork. That does not change the fact that this book is simply not the authoritative work on the Delta Blues that it is proclaimed to be on the back cover. That work requires substantially deeper digging into the entire Delta Blues history.
4 of 5 people found the following review helpful
HASH(0x96464abc) out of 5 stars Many good points, many flaws July 15 2014
By Joseph Scott - Published on
Format: Paperback
A lot of interesting points in this book, but a lot of problems too. For instance, on p. 34 we read about W.C. Handy in Tutwiler, and we're told: "Although these blues could be found outside Mississippi -- the early roots of this music can be documented in all of the former slave states -- they seemed to flourish with a particular fervency in the Delta...." "Joe Turner" is about Tennessee events. Elbert Bowman heard a variant of "K.C. Moan" in Tennessee by 1905. John L. Goree apparently heard a variant of the same song in Alabama before 1905. Emmet Kennedy heard a variant of "Poor Boy Long Ways From Home" in Louisiana by about 1905. Handy's _Father Of The Blues_ says on pp. 142-143 that he heard the 12-bar "blues" "Got No More Home Than A Dog" when he lived in Evansville, Indiana, which was before Tutwiler. _Father Of The Blues_ in general and Handy's interviews in general do not suggest that blues had a special relationship to the Yazoo-Mississippi Delta relative to other areas he visited (e.g. see his "all over the South" on p. 146). The very idea that blues had a special relationship to the Yazoo-Mississippi Delta as of about 1905-1910 was accepted, without evidence, and popularized enthusiastically for decades by Alan Lomax, _after_ the publication of _Father Of The Blues_. (Gioia seems to know that Lomax wasn't a reliable source of information, but he doesn't seem to realize that the whole the-Yazoo-Mississippi-Delta-was-special-to-blues myth was popularized by that same source, e.g. in the 1947 book _Folk Song U.S.A._ and in an article that appeared in two periodicals in 1948. Lomax admitted in the 1990s that he was a "romantic" and that that had affected his work. Lomax's general lack of concern about detail resulted in him, e.g., publicizing John Lee Williamson of Tennessee as a "Mississippi Delta" musician in the '50s; the tail, Lomax's interest in the idea of the "Mississippi Delta bluesman," was wagging the dog.)

The earliest known publication of 12-bar "Blues" was in Louisiana (although Gioia doesn't know that, see p. 7 where he thinks that happened four years later); the first known reference to blues as a type of music is also from Louisiana, referring to a different tune; and Howard Odum collected a 12-bar black folk song with the word "blues" in it in Georgia before 1909. That's not about "the early roots" of blues music outside the Delta, it's about early blues music outside the Delta. (Charlie Patton's friend Booker Miller recalled Charlie saying that he taught himself guitar when he was about 19, that is, in about 1910.)

Gioia's discussion of Charles Peabody's folk music research in the Delta published in 1903 is slanted in the same direction: Peabody, like e.g. the folklorist Thomas brothers in Texas years before him, and like Anne Hobson in Alabama (see her 1903 book), encountered black folk songs without the word "blues" in them. This book tries to suggest that some of the Peabody stuff was likely blues on the basis of evidence such as having three chords. The use of three chords was normal in non-blues black folk music, and had been normal in folk music for centuries, and is in e.g. the song "Happy Birthday." And of course we don't read here about how the Thomas brothers stuff or the Hobson stuff was also maybe blues if we use our imaginations; they weren't in the Delta. On p. 14 we read Gioia's speculation about the origin of repeated lines within the stanza (which were actually all over 19th-century folk music) and he associates that with, you've guessed it, "the Delta singer." So don't expect an unbiased view of music in the Delta relative to music in other regions.

This book is similar to Robert Palmer's _Deep Blues_ in that the author hasn't really taken enough interest in lyric structures (such as AAB, AAAB, and ABB) to write accurately about them. Gioia in discussing a 16-bar song by Geeshie Wiley claims that 16-bar blues with AAAB lyrics were "unusual." The researcher of black folk music Newman White (born in 1892) already had it figured out in the late 1920s that AAAB had been the second most common form of lyrics after AAB in blues as of about the 1910s. Sixteen-bar blues were quite usual, before W.C. Handy's personal dislike of them relative to 12-bar and his huge influence on other songwriters helped diminish their popularity during the late 1910s and 1920s. (Examples of black musicians who knew the 16-bar blues form are Texas Alexander, Pink Anderson, Etta Baker, Andrew Baxter, Blind Blake, Lucille Bogan, Big Bill Broonzy, Bo Carter, Elizabeth Cotten, Cow Cow Davenport, Rev. Gary Davis, Blind Boy Fuller, Jesse Fuller, Lightnin' Hopkins, Peg Leg Howell, Mississippi John Hurt, John Jackson, Skip James, Blind Lemon Jefferson, Richard M. Jones, Charley Jordan, Huddie Ledbetter, Furry Lewis, Mance Lipscomb, Blind Willie McTell, Turner Parrish, Rufus Perryman, Will Shade, Henry Thomas, Walter Vinson, Elester Anderson, Charles Avery, Dorothy Baker, Will Baldwin, Wiley Barner, Ed Bell, Tom Bell, the Birmingham Jug Band, Tom Bradford, John Bray, Thomas Burt, Sam Butler, Butch Cage, Will Chastain, Big Boy Cleveland, Bob Coleman, Wilton Crawley, Reese Crenshaw, Jesse Crump, Robert Davis, Lem Fowler, Bobby Grant, William Harris, Robert Hicks, George Higgs, Cecil Barfield, Willie Hill, Bill Jackson, Edna Johnson, Elizabeth Johnson, Henry "Rufe" Johnson, Lottie Kimbrough, Johnie Lewis, Alura Mack, Eddie Mapp, the Mississippi String Band, William Moore, Lesley Riddle, Walter Roland, Robert Shaw, Thomas Shaw, Freeman Stowers, Edward Thompson, Odell Thompson, Johnny Watson, and Richard Williams.)