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History:Fiction or Science?, Vol.2 Paperback – Jun 22 2005
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About the Author
Anatoly T. Fomenko was born in 1945. He is a full member (Academician) of the Russian Academy of Sciences, the Russian Academy of Natural Sciences and the International Higher Education Academy of Sciences, as well as a doctor of physics and mathematics, a professor, and head of the Moscow State University Department of Mathematics and Mechanics. He solved the classical Plateau's Problem from the theory of minimal spectral surfaces. Fomenko is the author of the theory of invariants and topological classification of integrable Hamiltonian dynamic systems. he is also the author of 180 scientific publications, 26 monographs and textbooks on mathematics, a specialist in geometry and topology, variational calculus, symplectic topology, Hamiltonian geometry and mechanics, computer geometry. Mr. Fomenko is also the author of a number of books on the development of new empirico-statistical methods and their application to the analysis of historical chronicles as well as the chronology of antiquity and the Middle Ages.
Most Helpful Customer Reviews on Amazon.com (beta)
However, I did find a close correspondence between Herodotus' Persian kings and medieval events:
- the defeat and capture of an Anatolian king - the Lydian Croesus - by the Persian conqueror Cyrus is identical to the defeat and capture of another Anatolian king - sultan Bayezid - by the Asian/Mongol conqueror Tamerlane;
- the Persian conquest of Egypt by the cruel tyrant Cambyses reds almost exactly as the Ottoman conquest of Egypt by Selim the Grim (note the nickname!);
- Darius the Lawgiver of the Persian Empire looks very much alike to Sulayman the Magnificent, the Lawgiver in Islamic history;
- Xerxes, whose main claim to fame is to be defeated by the Greeks at the naval battle of Salamis, looks like Selim II (the Sot) whose main claim to fame is to be defeated by a Spanish-Italian alliance at the naval battle of Lepanto.
I should have expected Fomenko et al. to arrive at similar conclusions, however, they claim that the Persian kings are the alter egos of the Angevin kings of Sicily whose biographies do not contain the exploits of the Persian kings.
The similiarities I indicate lead to the conclusion that Herodotus must have written his Histories at the close of the 16th century. But this is extremely late, given that Herodotus is "the Father of History", so therefore all other "ancient" histories must have been fabricated even later. Yet, the founders of modern chronology - Scaliger and Petavius - laid their foundations also at the close of the 16th century and had the full corpus of ancient histories already at their disposal.
It seems to me that Fomenko has to address these inconsistencies, maybe in the forthcoming 5 volumes?
Another critique of their book is that the correspondencies between different rulers are often based on a superficial comparison of the biographies; upon a more thorough comparison many details appear that do not correspond at all.
Finally, the authors rely heavily on the works of Gregorovius (1821-1891!!) - his medieval histories of Rome and Athens - as the source of medieval history; these works are - at least in the West - hoplessly outdated and have been superceded by more up-to-date works (for instance, Julius Norwich's trilogy on Byzantine history is not even cited).
a) The verifiable theory that proves consensual chronology wrong with the aid of astronomy, statistics and mathematics;
b) The new chronology hypothesis based on a new understanding of known historical facts and the most likely logical explanation of the most obvious inconsistencies inherent in the official version of history;
c) The history conjectures, that is experimental historical reconstructions based on assumptions that the authors believe to make sense in the light of their research and linguistic parallels - void of ironclad factual support to date.
Fomenko's theory complies with the most rigid scientific standards as a whole:
It gives a coherent explanation of what we already know.
- It is consistent: independent lines of inquiry all lead to the same conclusion.
- The predictions it makes are confirmed empirically.
Fomenko goes by the following axioms:
- Chronology is the basis of history;
- Human evolution has always been linear, gradual and irreversible;
- The "cyclic" nature of human civilization is a myth, likewise all the gaps, duplicates, "dark ages" and "renaissances" that we know from consensual history;
- The accumulation of geographical knowledge as reflected in cartography is a gradual and irreversible process;
- The chronological distance between a given manuscript and the events described therein is proportional to the amount of distortions it contains;
- There is no "useless" information in authentic ancient sources.
Why the mainstream historians do not shower mathematician Academician Dr.Prof Fomenko with thanks and laurels?
Because Fomenko asserts that there was no such thing as the Tartar and Mongol invasion followed by three centuries of slavery, providing a formidable body of documental evidence to prove his assertion. The so-called "Tartars and Mongols" were the actual ancestors of the modern Russians, living in a bilingual state with Arabic spoken as freely as Russian. The ancient Russian state was governed by a double structure of civil and military authorities. The hordes were actually professional armies with a tradition of lifelong conscription (the recruitment being the so-called "blood tax"). Their "invasions" were punitive operations against the regions that attempted tax evasion. Fomenko proves that Russian history as we know it today is a blatant forgery concocted by a host of German scientists brought to Russia by the usurper dynasty of the Romanovs, whose ascension to the throne was the result of coup d'état, charged with the mission of making their reign look legitimate. Fomenko proves Ivan the Terrible to be a collation of four rulers, no less. They represented the two rival dynasties - the legitimate rulers and the ambitious upstarts. The winner took it all! Over some 30 years of controversy, Russian historians have made a most remarkable transition - they were initially accusing the young mathematician Fomenko of anticommunist dissident activity and attempts to deface the historical legacy of Soviet Russia; nowadays the middle-aged mathematician is accused of adhering to "pro-communist Russian nationalism" and defacing the proud historical legacy of Great Russia.
Because Fomenko blows consensual Russian history to smithereens, successfully removing a crucial cornerstone from underneath the otherwise impeccable edifice of World History. Fomenko adds insult to injury, wiping out one by one the Ancient Rome (the foundation of Rome in Italy is dated to the XIV century A. D.), the Ancient Greece and its numerous poleis, which he identifies as the mediaeval crusader settlements on the territory of Greece, and the Ancient Egypt (the pyramids of Giza become dated to the XI-XV century A. D. and identified as the royal cemetery of the Global "Mongolian" Empire, no less). The civilization of the Ancient Egypt is irrefutably dated to the XII-XV century A. D. with the aid of the ancient Egyptian horoscopes cut in stone. He was the first one to decipher and date all such horoscopes, coming up with mediaeval dates in every case. English historians rage at the suggestion that the history of Ancient England was de facto a Byzantine import transplanted to the English soil by the fugitive Byzantine nobility. To reward the English historians who consider themselves the true scribes of World History, the cover of the present book portrays Tintoretto's Jesus Christ crucified on the Big Ben.
Because Fomenko wipes out the Ancient History of China outright. No such thing. Full point. The compilation of the so-called Ancient Chinese History is reliably datable to the XVII-XVIII century only. It is perfectly recognizable as the Ancient European history, reworked and transcribed in hieroglyphs as yet another historical transplantation, this time performed on the Chinese soil by the loving Jesuit hands. The Chinese are the next in line to go berserk. Chinese history is inevitably bound to get both more ancient and more eventful, proportionally to the growing involvement of China in the world affairs. Chinese historians will keep on finding valid proof of prehistoric Chinese spaceflights until the Politburo orders them to shut up.
Too bad. Islam with all its key figures is datable to XV-XVI century A. D. Arabic historians may find consolation in the crucial historical role of the Ottoman Empire in the XVI-XVII century. The trouble is that this empire was initially a Christian state, with Hagia Sophia identifiable as Temple of Solomon, according to Fomenko! We can only guess if the acquisition of Alexander the Great (a Macedonian and a Christian) as the founder of the Muslim World Empire will make Fomenko's theories more acceptable to the Arabic mainstream. He certainly does not spare any holy cows at all, claiming The Stone of Qa'Aba in Mecca to contain the lost Arch of the Covenant.
Despite of reiterated statement that his theory is all about chronology and not Religion, Fomenko stirs up a whole condominium of wasp nests. His collection of anathemas, fatwa, and other condemnations from all parties concerned is already considerable. Little wonder, considering that the history of religions à la Fomenko looks as follows: the pre-Christian period (before the XI century and JC), Bacchic Christianity (XI-XII century, before and after JC), JC Christianity (XII-XVI century) and its subsequent mutations into Orthodox Christianity, the Catholicism, Islam, Buddhism, and so on.
According to Fomenko we know strictly NOTHING about the events that predate the X century A. D.
St Augustin was prescient when he spoke unto us: "be wary of mathematicians, particularly when they speak the truth."
The believers school of thought accepts everything the Bible says without questioning, whereas the vehement atheists school of thought renounces everything the Book has to say as nonsense, absurdity and malignant spells and stamps it as "A Collection of Writings of Unknown Date and Authorship Rendered into English From Supposed Copies of Supposed Originals Unfortunately Lost."
The rational person tries to think of what the ancient author(s) could really be referring to. Volcanoes? But there aren't any active volcanoes anywhere in the Middle East - nor Northern Africa.
However, there is an exception Vesuvius in Italy. It is at a considerable distance from Palestine, granted. There is one scientist who is brave enough to make the heretical presumption that the real events that became reflected in the Bible really took place elsewhere and some other time. Are the steps of the stoning crowd heard already?
If not, it must certainly be stampeding the paper trail of Anatoly Fomenko, one of the world's greatest living mathematicians and the author of the presumptions cited above. The second of seven volumes in his monumental tractate entitled "History: Fiction or Science?" has just come out in English, and it's the most sensational thing since genetic engineering!
For the first time ever exact science extracts from the Bible eventual dates and places where events of the Kingdoms of Judah and Israel have taken place. This volume delivers more in couple of chapters than biblical archeology in the past 200 years.
Since I went through the Columbia University's "Contemporary Civilization" program as an undergraduate, I was personally amused to see that two Classical Greek writers who were conventionally viewed as being ancient and historically inaccurate (though still great)-- i.e., Homer and Herodotus--- are viewed here as being relatively recent and accurate (as well as great.)
Fomenko's timeline becomes even more radical in this book: for example, Fomenko now tells us that Jesus probably lived in the 1100s, not the 1000s. And he was Russian.
We have a few volumes left before Fomenko gets around to British and American history.
Apparently, mediaeval and "ancient" chronicles refer to several spectacular solar eclipses accompaning the important events. The heavens validated thus the claim of the party that won the day and time-stampted it. Things celestial were in high demand in 16-17th cy, therefore the scolars "confirmed" ancient events with a remarkable astronomical phenomena; their learned astrology friends furnished an "exact" dating for vanity eclipse. This had been the prevailing agenda in the correspondence between the founding father of chronology Joseph Scaliger, a Jesuit, and Johannes Kepler, a fellow Jesuit and the founding father of astronomy.
All this "science" had been approximate, and calculated dates scholastic and arbitrary, the reason being that both the model and data were way too crude. The Apollo missions would have missed the Moon if their trajectory calculation had been based on the Earth-Moon model of the XVI-XVII century.
The astronomers knew about lunar tidal friction already in XVIII century, but could not calculate it. In the XVIII-XIX century they tried to use it for calculating "historical" data, coming up with a horrendous mess as a result. Actually, to make valid reverse calculations of solar eclipses giving precise time, place, phase and duration one needs an atomic clock, a laser, a satellite, a computer and a special software suite. Moreover, such calculations can only be reliable if the Earth-Moon system is stable during the period of research. Fomenko presumes it stable until proven contrary.
Once properly recalculated with the aid of modern computers and software, all the "ancient" eclipses turn out to be mediaeval - or fake.
In this volume Fomenko gives his final analysis of the eclipse tried described by Thucydides, dating them to 1039,1046 and 1057 AD, discovers the layered structure of this extremely rare authentic mediaeval manuscript, and attributes the events described therein to 1374-1387 AD. According to Fomenko, the "ancient" Greek Thucydides describes the Peloponnesian War as the conflict between the mediaeval Navarrans (Spartans) and Catalans (Athenians) in Greece!
Fomenko does his best to disentangle the embroidered knots of history, putting his razor-sharp logic to good use. He delivers just as he promises in Volume 1: the Middle Ages are the same epoch as the "Antiquity", the Second and the Third Roman Empire become doubles, and the Roman Emperors duplicate the Biblical rulers of Israel and Judah to boot. Fomenko asserts that the famous reform of the Occidental Church in alleged XI century by "Pope Gregory Hildebrand" is the reflection of the XII century reforms of the Byzantine emperor Andronicus, who, in turn, identifies as Jesus Christ as a historical character as opposed to a mythical figure.
Ah yes, the great "ancient" Homer actually lived in XIV century A.D.; and counted the Trojan War; This World War Zero happened in fact in the XIIIth century A.D., the casus belli of WW0 was the first round of division of the proto-Christianity and not the feminine vanity. Period. Let's call it an alternative History for the time being!
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