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Orthomolecular Psychiatry: Treatment of Schizophrenia Hardcover – Jun 1973

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Product Details

  • Hardcover: 697 pages
  • Publisher: W H Freeman & Co (Sd) (June 1973)
  • Language: English
  • ISBN-10: 0716708981
  • ISBN-13: 978-0716708988
  • Product Dimensions: 24.4 x 16.8 x 3.8 cm
  • Shipping Weight: 1.3 Kg
  • Average Customer Review: 1.0 out of 5 stars 1 customer review
  • Amazon Bestsellers Rank: #1,333,356 in Books (See Top 100 in Books)
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Product Description

The classic, which discusses therapies backed by Linus Pauling that incorporate optimum concentrations of substances normally present in the human body such as vitamins.

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Top Customer Reviews

Format: Hardcover
Avoid this old book on long-disproven "vitamin cures Schizophrenia" theories - and buy a book by Nancy Andreasen or Irving Gottesman on the new genetics and genomics of schizoprhenia.
This book covers an approach which Dr. Abram Hoffer and others developed in the 1950s, but which by the 1970s was proven to be fruitless. The work of Dr. Hoffer and others is discussed in detail in the American Psychiatric Association Task Force Report, July 1973, which points out methodological flaws in the early work and reviews later studies which failed to show any benefit for such treatments.
In recent years, new medicines, with improved side-effect profiles and techniques to overcome problems with social and occupational functioning, have been well proven advances for the treatment of schizophrenia. Early intervention programs should prevent some of the serious dysfunction of the disease.
Serious illnesses like schizophrenia require proven treatments. Vitamin treatments as "alternative" therapy for schizophrenia should not be recommended.
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Amazon.com: 3.7 out of 5 stars 10 reviews
7 of 8 people found the following review helpful
5.0 out of 5 stars This book can help save lives Dec 8 2013
By taylor stanley - Published on Amazon.com
Format: Hardcover Verified Purchase
Having mental illnesses in my family and of my own drew me to Orthomolecular Psychiatry - which was edited by David R. Hawkins and two time Nobel Prize winner Linus Pauling. I was led to this book by reading David R. Hawkins' other works and was finally curious (and distraught) enough to spend the money and buy the book. The book is technical and intelligent - a series of articles, essays, and studies by various scientists, M.D. and Ph.D.s - most contributors being orthomolecular practitioners themselves. Several detailed essays on exact treatments and procedures were written by David R Hawkins to close the book.

The subtitle - For the Treatment of Schizophrenia - is important to remember with this purchase. The book mostly details the treatment of "perception disorders" (a broad label that includes eating disorders, schizophrenia and its types, autism, paranoia/delusional disorders, addictions etc.) with vitamin therapy, the empasis being mostly on the schizo-type disorders. There are some useful chapters on the treatment of behavior disorders (such as autism and ADHD) in children and adolescents. There are no chapters about the orthomolecular treatment for depression, which is similar but requires amino acids for successful treatment. If you're looking for an orthomolecular approach to depressioin, Priscilla Slagle's "The Way Up from Down" is a good place to start.

There is no other information I could find on the internet about the content of this book. For those interested, these are some of the articles/chapters I found especially useful (and readable!).

1. Orthomolecular Psychiatry - Linus Pauling

4. The Genetics of Schizophrenia and Schizoid Disease - Leonard L. Heston

5. Perceptual Defect and Role Handicap: A Theory of the Etiology of Schizophrenia - Ruth V. Kirk (a favorite chapter which is useful for understanding ANY mental illness and its environmental, social, and perceptual origins)

6. The Adrenochrome Hypothesis of Schizophrenia -1972.
The Role of Rheomelanin Formation in Some Toxic Effects of Catecholamine Derivatives. - Mark D. Altschule, Zoltan L. Hegedus

8. Kryptopyrrole in Molecular Psychiatry - D. G. Irvine

10. The Background of the Niacin Treatment - Humphry Osmond

11. Mechanism of Action of Nicotinic Acid and Nicotinamide in the Treatment of Schizophrenia - Abram Hoffer

14. Ascorbic Acid and Schizophrenia - Marijan Herjanic

16. The Hoffer-Osmond Diagnostic Test - H. Kelm

19. Metabolic Dysperception: The Role of the Family Physician in its Diagnosis and Management - Bella Kowalson

20. Subclinical Pellagra - R. Glen Green

22. Relative Hypoglycemia in Schizophrenia - Robert L. Meiers

24. High-Dosage Levels of Certain Vitamins in the Treatment of Children with Sever Mental Disorders - Bernard Rimland

25. The Use of Parenteral Vitamins in the Treatment of Schizophrenia - Allan Cott

26. A Review of Ten Years' Experience Utilizing Niacin in Treating Schizophrenia with an Evaluation of Metabolic Dysperception as a Clarifying Diagnostic Term - Theodore R. Robie

28. The Development of an Integrated Community System for The Effective Treatment of Schizophrenia - David Hawkins

29. The Orthomolecular Approach to the Diagnosis of Schizophrenia - David Hawkins

30. Orthomolecular Psychiatry: Treamtent of Schizophrenia - David Hawkins (This chapter is a wonderful summary of theory, treatment, and practice - perhaps the most valuable article in the book)

The information, whether you believe it or not, is stated clearly and there is little room for misinterpretation. Theories and hypotheses are properly labeled as such, and the success observed by the experts is explained professionally and optimistically. And it is stated often that the treatment is NOT effective for everyone (but an 80% + success rate makes this worth exploring). Vitamin therapy for mental illness has helped, even cured, tens, possibly hundreds, of thousands of people over the decades since its discovery. Orthomolecular therapy has been one of the necessary tools for my own recovery from depression and perception disorder.

I would highly recommend this book to any professional in the fields of science and medicine. Anyone willing to pay (the book costs only as much as a visit to the psychiatrist, which isn't unreasonable to consider) will benefit. Anyone looking for a safe treatment for schizophrenia and other perceptual disorders will find clear instructions, and discover what may be the best way to start.
2 of 4 people found the following review helpful
4.0 out of 5 stars Provides interesting insights into the early work of Dr. ... Sept. 10 2015
By Rabidranath - Published on Amazon.com
Format: Hardcover Verified Purchase
Provides interesting insights into the early work of Dr. David R. Hawkins. I suggest pairing it up with "Doctor of Truth" by Scott Jeffrey.
16 of 17 people found the following review helpful
5.0 out of 5 stars A book ahead of its time! Aug. 8 2013
By oxcart22 - Published on Amazon.com
Format: Hardcover
Unfortunately the pharmaceutical industry is driven by absurdly incredible amounts of money. A patent on a new drug allows for a maximum return on investment that should be a license to steal. Vitamins are not patentable, making them very problematic if effective or worse a possible cure for a disease or disorder. The amino acid Tryptophan is the best example of a threat to this paradigm.

Tryptophan is an essential amino acid required for the sustainability of life. The body takes tryptophan from our food and breaks it down into niacin, serotonin and melatonin. Niacin performs many significant metabolic functions.

Serotonin is a critical brain neurotransmitter regulating many human behaviors. Most antidepressants work on serotonin function and metabolism.

Melatonin is a hormone secreted by the Pineal Gland. The pineal gland takes serotonin and makes melatonin. This gland is often called the biological clock, it regulates our sleep/wake cycles. Sleeping problems are found in a host of mental disorders.

It takes 60 parts of tryptophan to make one part of niacin (a 60 to one conversion ratio). If the body is low in tryptophan (which is found in many mental illnesses) then the production of niacin, serotonin and melatonin is altered to lower levels. Low levels of tryptophan = low levels of niacin...low levels of tryptophan = low serotonin...low serotonin = low levels of melatonin.

Orthomolecular Medicine uses large doses of niacin to treat schizophrenia. By supplying the body with adequate amounts of niacin, the body then has more tryptophan to use in the production of serotonin and melatonin which in many cases are inadequate for proper brain function.
34 of 36 people found the following review helpful
5.0 out of 5 stars Best book ever on how to cure schizophrenia successfully. May 27 2011
By Blizzard of OZ - Published on Amazon.com
Format: Hardcover
This is my first book review. First off, I totally disagree with Gregorius's negative review. He stated, "Almost everything this book proposes in terms of diagnosis, causes and treatment of mental disorders has either never been supported or has been disproven by subsequent research" but offered ZERO proof to back up his claim. I'd be interested in seeing this "subsequent research", because, in my real-world hands-on experience, this book has worked miraculously well.

This book turned me from being an adversarial non-believer in the underlying premises of this book into an enthusiastic convert in the book's non-toxic approach to psychiatry. It was my erroneous thesis that abnormal behavior causes the alleged biochemical imbalances seen in schizophrenia, and not the other way around. However, "biochemical imbalance" is more of a myth than reality, as the biochemistry of the body is always in a constant state of change. Nevertheless, the book proved to me that "Orthomolecular Psychiatry" will transform a totally mentally gone, catatonic, hallucinogenic, schizophrenic individual back into their normal sane self.

In my experience, the orthomolecular approach worked so extremely well that it made me feel like Jesus, because it seemed like a true miracle to me; and everyone involved in the patient's care was ecstatic about the success. Don't get me wrong; mentally, it was extremely hard work. One needs LOTS AND LOTS AND LOTS of compassion and patience with the schizophrenic patient, as one must understand that such a patient is an absent-minded innocent prisoner of the mind, as one works to free them from the metabolic dysperceptive ravages of insanity. One has to know and understand what one is doing. One needs a decent medical background in order to understand this book. One needs to consult other orthomolecular experts and books, to supplement and update oneself on the findings and discoveries documented in this book. I suggest lots of note-taking; a review on how circadian rhythms, the menstrual cycle (p. 466), pregnancy, post-partum depression, and Seasonal Affective Disorder affect the the nervous, endocrine, and immune systems; a review on the upper safe limits of all recommended nutrients and STAYING UNDER those LIMITS. I also suggest reading: The Healing Nutrients Within, an great book about amino acids and their healing role in the biosynthesis of hormones and neurotransmitters.

Now, with healing the mind in mind, lets get into the mind of Orthomolecular Psychiatry (pun intended). Any underlying hypoglycemia will need to be corrected before undertaking the protocol for schizophrenia (p. 640), otherwise it won't work. Which orthomolecular protocol is followed also depends on whether the patient is histadelic or histapenic (pp. 465-474). It is preferable that one seek the highest quality natural nutrients, and buy them at the lowest possible prices one can find. Here are some suggested pointers and pitfalls to be mindful of, as one sets out to cure schizophrenia:

1. While synthetic Vitamin E (dl alpha-tocopheryl) still has antioxidant benefits, it's still not as beneficial as "Natural" Vitamin E (d alpha-tocopherol), due to it's chirality - the l alpha-tocopheryls are "left-handed" molecules, and are therefore unrecognized by the body's Vitamin E-dependent enzymes. In regard to lipoic acid (LA), which is also known as α-lipoic acid and alpha-lipoic acid (ALA), similarly while synthetic (R/S)-lipoic acid (R/S-LA) still has antioxidant benefits, it's still not as beneficial as "Natural" (R)-(+)-lipoic acid (RLA or RALA), due to it's chirality. For example, RALA is one of the body's natural chelators of mercury, lead, and other toxic heavy metals.

2. If one is deficient in vitamin B12, and not a vegan, consider that it is more likely due to malabsorbtion than it is to an insufficient dietary intake. However, if one does buy vitamin B12, then it should be the hydroxo- / hydroxycobalamin precursor form (best), or its two bioactive forms, adenosylcobalamin AND methylcobalamin, NOT the cyanocobalamin form, as the cyano- form is not only useless to the body, esp. to smokers, but slightly toxic, too. Unfortunately, methylcobalamin can donate its methyl group to any mercury circulating in the body to produce methylmercury, an even more toxic form of mercury. However, methylcobalamin (or better yet, hydroxocobalamin) is the indicated form of B12, esp. if the patient has hyperhomocysteinemia, Bell's palsy, H.I.V.1, cancer, cardiac arrhythmia, male impotence, circadian and/or sleep-wake rhythm disorders, diabetic neuropathy, low back pain, neuralgia, amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, carpal tunnel syndrome, and paraplegia {PMID: 9855571, 8749227, 24455309, 24018744, 24083644}. Therefore, one should consider chelating mercury out of the body (with RALA), before ingesting methylcobalamin.

3. When one gets the high-potency multi-vitamin/multi-mineral supplement, (s)he should make sure it has little to NO iron, unless the lab tests show an iron deficiency. However, under no circumstances should the supplement contain "iron oxide" nor "ferric oxide" (unless you like the idea of eating RUST). Speaking of oxide minerals, zinc oxide, as a lozenge, is also useless to the body; that goes for the citrate, aspartate, mono-methionine, and ascorbate forms of zinc lozenges, too; as those forms all yield ZERO ionic zinc (iZn or Zn²+) to the body at 7.4pH. The two best forms are zinc acetate (100% iZn yield) and zinc gluconate (72% iZn), (WITHOUT citrate nor Vitamin C) {coldcure.com}. Zinc chloride (WITHOUT sugars), and zinc sulfate are also somewhat highly ionizable. However, I don't recommend zinc chloride, because it's corrosive.

4. If possible, also avoid beta-carotene and/or Vitamin A supplementation (unless correcting documented low levels, such as in night-blindness), because such nutrients tend to become toxic even at doses not much higher than RDI or RDA (Youtube: BBC - Horizon - The Truth About Vitamins).

5. Finally, as far as Vitamin B3 goes, because of a possible (temporary) flush side effect from the nicotinic acid form of B3, either the niacinamide or the inositol hexanicotinate (IHN) "flush-free" niacin forms are usually preferred, but at the cost of dispensing with nicotinic acid's cholesterol-lowering benefit in males. Which form of vitamin B3 is best depends on the patient's specific medical history, lab test results, and symptoms. Keep in mind that niacin is contraindicated in gout, peptic ulcer, hypertension, and diabetes (p. 642). Niacin has a hyperglycemic effect, and thereby increases the need for insulin. Yet, Glucose Tolerance Factor (GTF), a complex of chromium picolinate + nicotinic acid, can cure diabetes type II, especially when combined with a low-carb diet and exercise (which will be further explained below), and magnesium, and methyl- and/or hydroxocobalamin.

The nutritional supplements will probably cost at least around $100 for the first 90 days supply, and decrease in cost as the mental condition improves. If you think that's expensive, just go on YouTube and watch Making a Killing: The Untold Story of Psychotropic Drugging, or just wait until you try a single overnight stay at the psychiatric hospital, wherein patients are conveniently kept permanently mentally disabled, so as to maximize profits, either because, with rare exception, the psychiatrist is too incompetent to cure the patient, or (s)he knows better, but is too corrupted by greed, to give a damn about the patient, so (s)he puts the patients on drugs... for LIFE. Drugs, as in foreign chemical substances - none of which are meant for human consumption. Didn't you ever hear: "Just say NO to drugs!"? "Oh, but pharmaceutical drugs are legal." So what! The body doesn't care if drugs are legal or illegal, they're virtually ALL toxic; and the body will be adversely affected by them as such. If you are a hard-core allopathic physician reading this post, with a "drugs and surgery FIRST" mentality, you are in violation of your Hippocratic Oath: "...NEVER DO HARM...". Or was that Oath you took just a bunch of B$ to you, patients be damned?

The patient will also NEED to EXERCISE regularly and moderately under qualified guided supervision, preferably with pulley-weights or their own body-weight (but NOT free-weights for physical and PSYCHIATRIC safety reasons), appropriate to their ability, 3 to 15 minutes per day (for strength maintenance, and slow or no weight-loss), or 15 to 30 minutes per day (for shaping up, getting substantially stronger, and accelerating weight-loss), 4 to 7 days per week, every week to speed up the biochemical transformation and detoxification.

(S)he will also need to go on an essential oils high-fat or moderate-fat, moderate-protein, low-carb, high-fiber diet, somewhat similar to the Atkins diet (minus the fried foods, saturated, solid, hydrogenated, rancid, and synthetic fats, and minus ALL the omnivore, predator, scavenger, synthetic, and HAMSTER-derived transglutaminase glued meats such as franks, glued beef, glued chicken, pork AND glued pork, shellfish, shrimp, (glued) imitation crab, etc. The vegan Ornish diet, provided that its kcaloric intake ratios are REVERSED, should also work (minus the high-carb, low fiber, and/or toxic vegetation, especially mushrooms, yeast, and gluten grains) except most people find it to be too austere to stay with it. Also, don't forget to lay off the junk food, and even fruit juices and smoothies.

In fact, it's probably a good idea to temporarily cut down DRASTICALLY on all sweets, all fruits, AND ALL starchy foods during the recovery phase for up to around six months, especially if weight-loss is also needed (in which case, it's about a month of high-carb abstinence for every 10 pounds of weight-loss needed). A good weightloss kcaloric intake ratio is around 70% mostly oily fats, 20% protein, and 10% carbs - (practically the opposite of the Ornish vegan diet). However, if the patient needs to GAIN weight, then (s)he'll need to REDUCE the intake of fats AND INCREASE the intake of nutrient-dense carbs, like whole fruits, legumes, and (temporarily) even non-gluten starchy vegetables.

Either way, regardless of weight goals, you might also want to minimize the consumption of Franken-foods, such as GMOs and Fukushima fish and diary. Conversely, potassium iodide, zinc acetate (or zinc gluconate), sodium bicarbonate, magnesium, selenium, cysteine (NAC), glutathione (GSH), glutamine, and vitamins B3, B9 (folate), C, D3, and E can help prevent, mitigate, and/or repair the mutagenic and carcinogenic adverse effects of Fukushima foods, and radiology on DNA. In fact, following the exercise and diet recommendations above, should ameliorate and correct the niacin contraindications (p. 642), like gout, peptic ulcer, hypertension, diabetes, and hypoglycemia mentioned earlier above.

Some final words to the wise: All the behavioral, psychological, social, environmental, genetic, dietary, and other factors that contributed to the development of schizophrenia need to be permanently removed and/or minimized to the fullest extent possible, otherwise the patient is liable to have a relapse, and need to be treated again. For example, the removal of dietary factors, includes avoiding grains like wheat, rye, and barley, since they usually have gluten, and sometimes are contaminated with ergot mold, both of which are strongly linked to the worsening and/or development of schizophrenia-like symptoms. Another example is the removal of environmental factors such as getting rid of all your cats, unless you don't mind potentially catching schizophrenia by infecting your brain through exposure to the Toxoplasma gondii parasitic protozoan in your cat's litter. Alternatively, if you insist on keeping your cat(s), then consider buying your cat(s) a toilet-training kit. Also consider avoiding fluoride, dental mercury amalgam fillings, and ALL vaccines, since they're ALL toxic, xenobiotic, and non-sterile, esp. the Toxoplasma gondii laden vaccine from the uniformed services. "Oh, but vaccines brought down the incidence of infectious diseases" - BULLCRAP! History proves otherwise - go here: vaclib.org/chapter/njpg6x2.htm Thank NOT the vaccine industry (who have a vested interest in the the spread of more and more infectious diseases), but thank Dr. Pierre Jacques Antoine Béchamp, DSc, MD (October 16, 1816 - April 15, 1908), Dr. Ignaz Phillipp Semmelweis, MD (July 1, 1818 - August 13, 1865), Sir Joseph Lister, Bt., (April 5, 1827 - 10 February 10, 1912), and your local civil engineers, plumbers, janitors, maids, and garbagemen - the REAL HEROS who brought down the incidence of infectious diseases.

Educating and counseling the patient are extremely important. Moreover, an intense amount of applied learning by the clinician and the patient's adherence to the protocols are required in order for the treatment to work quickly and successfully. Some other great psychiatry books to learn from are: Reality Therapy: A New Approach to Psychiatry (Colophon Books); Toxic Psychiatry: Why Therapy, Empathy and Love Must Replace the Drugs, Electroshock, and Biochemical Theories of the "New Psychiatry"; Head First: The Biology of Hope and the Healing Power of the Human Spirit; Quantum Healing: Exploring the Frontiers of Mind/Body Medicine; Orthomolecular Treatment for Schizophrenia; and Natural Healing for Schizophrenia And Other Common Mental Disorders (also available in Spanish, Curación Natural Para Esquizofrenia: Y Otros Trastornos Mentales Comunes (Spanish Edition)). As the authors of Orthomolecular Psychiatry, like Drs. David R. Hawkins, MD, PhD; Linus C. Pauling, PhD, DSc, MD; Humphrey Osmond, MD; Abram Hoffer, MD, PhD; Carl C. Pfeiffer, MD, PhD; et al., amply proved, thank God that not every medical scientist and physician parks their brain at the door, when they enter graduate and medical school.

2012-04-25 edited review: In regards to Gregorius's unsubstantiated negative review here, I'm going to take a wild guess and suppose maybe he was referring to the American Psychiatric Association Task Force Report, July 1973 that szwebmaster, the other negative reviewer here referred to. However, Dr. Abram Hoffer, MD, PhD wrote a rebuttal to that report; it's called Megavitamin therapy: In reply to the American Psychiatric Association Task Force report on megavitamins and orthomolecular psychiatry. May the truth prevail, and lies fail.
1.0 out of 5 stars Check out the controlled studies. July 11 2016
By M. Odurih - Published on Amazon.com
Format: Hardcover
I have to agree with the other detractors of this book that presents a long-since disproven theory on vitamin therapy for schizophrenia. Linus Pauling was clearly a brilliant man who got some things woefully wrong, like his theory on the structure of DNA, but other things correct. I cannot speak for Hawkins, but the evidence indicates he was a flake. Pauling's theory on vitamin C and colds was a classic example of self-deception. Blinded studies showed in the end that taking large doses of vitamin C doesn't prevent colds, but that if you take them daily and then stop, you're more likely to get a cold! As for orthomolecular psychiatry, it's long since been shown in blinded studies not to be effective. Take a look at this paper, for example: Vaughan K, McConaghy N. Megavitamin and dietary treatment in schizophrenia: a randomised, controlled trial. The Australian and New Zealand journal of psychiatry. 1999;33(1):84-8. Epub 1999/04/10. PubMed PMID: 10197889.
So why, you ask, can people say that they've been helped by the treatment when controlled studies say it doesn't work? In controlled studies some patients get better, but others do not. The advantage of a controlled study is that it can determine how many people would get better anyway if they thought what they were taking was a medicine (placebo effect, or just chance). This is why controlled studies are so important.