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TCP/IP Illustrated, Volume 2: The Implementation Hardcover – Jan 31 1995

4.5 out of 5 stars 10 customer reviews

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Product Details

  • Hardcover: 1200 pages
  • Publisher: Addison-Wesley Professional; 1 edition (Jan. 31 1995)
  • Language: English
  • ISBN-10: 020163354X
  • ISBN-13: 978-0201633542
  • Product Dimensions: 19.8 x 4.3 x 24.4 cm
  • Shipping Weight: 2 Kg
  • Average Customer Review: 4.5 out of 5 stars 10 customer reviews
  • Amazon Bestsellers Rank: #237,297 in Books (See Top 100 in Books)
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Product Description

From the Inside Flap

IntroductionThis book describes and presents the source code for the common reference implementation of TCP/IP: the implementation from the Computer Systems Research Group (CSRG) at the University of California at Berkeley. Historically this has been distributed with the 4.x BSD system (Berkeley Software Distribution). This implementation was first released in 1982 and has survived many significant changes, much fine tuning, and numerous ports to other Unix and non-Unix systems. This is not a toy implementation, but the foundation for TCP/IP implementations that are run daily on hundreds of thousands of systems worldwide. This implementation also provides router functionality, letting us show the differences between a host implementation of TCP/IP and a router.

We describe the implementation and present the entire source code for the kernel implementation of TCP/IP, approximately 15,000 lines of C code. The version of the Berkeley code described in this text is the 4.4BSD-Lite release. This code was made publicly available in April 1994, and it contains numerous networking enhancements that were added to the 4.3BSD Tahoe release in 1988, the 4.3BSD Reno release in 1990, and the 4.4BSD release in 1993. (App sourceB describes how to obtain this source code.) The 4.4BSD release provides the latest TCP/IP features, such as multicasting and long fat pipe support (for high-bandwidth, long-delay paths). {Fig 1.1} (p. 4) provides additional details of the various releases of the Berkeley networking code.

This book is intended for anyone wishing to understand how the TCP/IP protocols are implemented: programmers writing network applications, system administrators responsible for maintaining computer systems and networks utilizing TCP/IP, and any programmer interested in understanding how a large body of nontrivial code fits into a real operating system.

Organization of the Book We take a bottom-up approach to the TCP/IP protocol suite, starting at the data-link layer, then the network layer (IP, ICMP, IGMP, IP routing, and multicast routing), followed by the socket layer, and finishing with the transport layer (UDP, TCP, and raw IP). Intended Audience This book assumes a basic understanding of how the TCP/IP protocols work. Readers unfamiliar with TCP/IP should consult the first volume in this series, Stevens 1994, for a thorough description of the TCP/IP protocol suite. This earlier volume is referred to throughout the current text as Volume 1. The current text also assumes a basic understanding of operating system principles.

We describe the implementation of the protocols using a data-structures approach. That is, in addition to the source code presentation, each chapter contains pictures and descriptions of the data structures used and maintained by the source code. We show how these data structures fit into the other data structures used by TCP/IP and the kernel. Heavy use is made of diagrams throughout the text - there are over 250 diagrams. This data-structures approach allows readers to use the book in various ways. Those interested in all the implementation details can read the entire text from start to finish, following through all the source code. Others might want to understand how the protocols are implemented by understanding all the data structurestand reading all the text, but not following through all the source code.

We anticipate that many readers are interested in specific portions of the book and will want to go directly to those chapters. Therefore many forward and backward references are provided throughout the text, along with a thorough index, to allow individual chapters to be studied by themselves. The inside back covers contain an alphabetical cross-reference of all the functions and macros described in the book and the starting page number of the description. Exercises are provided at the end of the chapters; most solutions are in Appendix A to maximize the usefulness of the text as a self-study reference.

Source Code Copyright All of the source code presented in this book, other than Figures 1.2 and 8.27, is from the 4.4BSD-Lite distribution. This software is publicly available through many sources (Appendix B). All of this source code contains the following copyright notice:

Acknowledgments We thank the technical reviewers who read the manuscript and provided important feedback on a tight timetable: Ragnvald Blindheim, Jon Crowcroft, Sally Floyd, Glen Glater, John Gulbenkian, Don Hering, Mukesh Kacker, Berry Kercheval, Brian W. Kernighan, Ulf Kieber, Mark Laubach, Steven McCanne, Craig Partridge, Vern Paxson, Steve Rago, Chakravardhi Ravi, Peter Salus, Doug Schmidt, Keith Sklower, Ian Lance Taylor, and G. N. Ananda Vardhana. A special thanks to the consulting editor, Brian Kernighan, for his rapid, thorough, and helpful reviews throughout the course of the project, and for his continued encouragement and support.

Our thanks (again) to the National Optical Astronomy Observatories (NOAO), especially Sidney Wolff, Richard Wolff, and Steve Grandi, for providing access to their networks and hosts. Our thanks also to the U.C. Berkeley CSRG: Keith Bostic and Kirk McKusick provided access to the latest 4.4BSD system, and Keith Sklower provided the modifications to the 4.4BSD-Lite software to run under BSD/386 V1.1.

G.R.W. wishes to thank John Wait, for several years of gentle prodding; Dave Schaller, for his encouragement; and Jim Hogue, for his support during the writing and production of this book.

W.R.S. thanks his family, once again, for enduring another "small" book project. Thank you Sally, Bill, Ellen, and David.

The hardwork, professionalism, and support of the team at Addison-Wesley has made the authors' job that much easier. In particular, we wish to thank John Wait for his guidance and Kim Dawley for her creative ideas.

Camera-ready copy of the book was produced by the authors. It is only fitting that a book describing an industrial-strength software system be produced with an industrial-strength text processing system. Therefore one of the authors chose to use the Groff package written by James Clark, and the other author agreed begrudgingly.

We welcome electronic mail from any readers with comments, suggestions, or bug fixes: tcpipiv2-book@aw.com. Each author will gladly blame the other for any remaining errors.

Gary R. Wright
Middletown, Connecticut

W. Richard Stevens
Tucson, Arizona

November 1994


From the Back Cover

TCP/IP Illustrated, an ongoing series covering the many facets of TCP/IP, brings a highly-effective visual approach to learning about this networking protocol suite.

TCP/IP Illustrated, Volume 2 contains a thorough explanation of how TCP/IP protocols are implemented. There isn't a more practical or up-to-date bookothis volume is the only one to cover the de facto standard implementation from the 4.4BSD-Lite release, the foundation for TCP/IP implementations run daily on hundreds of thousands of systems worldwide.

Combining 500 illustrations with 15,000 lines of real, working code, TCP/IP Illustrated, Volume 2 uses a teach-by-example approach to help you master TCP/IP implementation. You will learn about such topics as the relationship between the sockets API and the protocol suite, and the differences between a host implementation and a router. In addition, the book covers the newest features of the 4.4BSD-Lite release, including multicasting, long fat pipe support, window scale, timestamp options, and protection against wrapped sequence numbers, and many other topics.

Comprehensive in scope, based on a working standard, and thoroughly illustrated, this book is an indispensable resource for anyone working with TCP/IP.


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Customer Reviews

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Top Customer Reviews

Format: Hardcover
I bought this book shortly after finishing Volume 1. With volume 1, I found myself staying up late to read more, but volume 2 gets tiring after a while... it's literally a detailed analysis of every single line of networking code in the BSD 4.3 kernel. Although it's well worth the effort, I found myself reading no more than about 10 pages at a time (constantly flipping back, sometimes almost all the way to the beginning, to re-read something I hadn't quite absorbed the first time).
Difficulty aside, this book alone will honestly make you a TCP/IP guru - now that I've read volumes 1 and 2, the networking administrators where I work come to me with questions about issues they can't resolve. I'm literally comfortable saying that there's nothing I don't know about TCP/IP, and that's not a statement I'd make lightly (feel free to test me). But more than that, I learned a *lot* about writing good, solid code... in learning the networking stack as a whole, I was able to understand some higher-level software engineering concepts that had previously eluded me.
All in all, volume 1 is The Hobbit, and volume 2 is the Lord of the Rings - an oddysey not to be undertaken lightly, but from which you will emerge stronger and more powerful than ever before.
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Format: Hardcover
Even though this book was first published in 1995, it still serves as a useful research and reference guide to those involved in changing the TCP/IP protocol or the mathematical and simulation modeling of it. Most of the source code is included for the protocol and UDP is treated also, with Berkeley TCP/IP used as the protocol implementation. A brief introduction to descriptors and memory buffers is given in Chapter 1, along with a discussion of input processing. The authors treat memory buffers (Mbufs) in detail in Chapter 2. Four different types of Mbufs are used in the protocol, depending on the flag setting in the m_flags member of the header. The source code clearly illustrates the data structures used for the Mbufs. This is followed by a detailed discussion of the Mbuf macros and functions. This is followed in the next chapter with a discussion of the interface layer and the all-important sockaddr data structure. In addition, the system initialization procedures are treated very nicely. This is followed by a very informative overview of the Ethernet interface, with most of the source code omitted since it is hardware specific. The LANCE driver is discussed thoroughly in this chapter. Then, in the next chapter, the SLIP and loopback interfaces are discussed with a very effective diagram used to illustrate the device drivers. The authors do manage to spend a few helpful paragraphs on SLIP performance considerations.
Chapter 6 is a very detailed treatment of IP addressing, the most useful discussion being the one on the in_ifinit function. This is followed by a discussion of the data structures used in domains and group protocols, with the IP initialization and transport multiplexing discussion being of particular interest to me.
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Format: Hardcover
An elaborate description of network implementation and working of transport layer protocols. Like all of Richard Steven's books, this one too has a large number of code examples to explain the usage of
the data structures and the API used for writing networking applications. The book offers a great index for backreferencing.
Covers all important layer 3 and 4 protocols and the various services offered by them. The code examples provide an excellent first step for starting network programmers and a useful reference for the experienced.
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Format: Hardcover
I was always fascinated by the way computers were connected over the networks and communicated. Being a software programmer, I was looking for a book which could explain how the internet protocols work. TCP/IP Illustrated gave me an excellent and in-depth details of how TCP/IP is implemented with a unique line by line explanation of source code and clear diagrams. The book is an absolute must on every network programmer's book shelf and for anyone like me interested in getting closer look at the way TCP/IP functions.
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By A Customer on Aug. 25 1999
Format: Hardcover
If you want to know the internal mechanisms used to build an IP stack, and how the mechanisms are implemented, this is the book to refer to. The level of detail is very impressive. Although Vol.1 can be read as a text book, Vol.2 is really a reference book with a large quantity of code. It is very easy to read and well indexed (very important for a book of this nature). Simply put, it's one of the best TCP/IP implementation books I've encountered yet.
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