After using the old “cookie tin” homemade water warmers, for years, we grew frustrated with burnt out light bulbs and finding our hens water frozen solid. We purchased this heating base, then this winter we had temps regularly in the -20 to -30 Celsius range. Not ONCE did we ever have to chip ice again! We used just a simple galvanized waterer sitting on this with zero issues. We saw no increase in our hydro bill, and it’s still in perfect condition for next winter.